Why has the United States Senate (@USSenate) COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY, Subcommittee on The Constitution, Let the Inferior Courts of the United States Misstate Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (@SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decisions delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15, 1915, Decided January 24, 1916), and Stanton v. Baltic Mining Company, 240 U.S. 103, No. 359 (Argued October 14 and 15, 1915, Decided February 21, 1916), for 34 years (1981-2015): “the sixteenth amendment was enacted for the express purpose of providing for a direct (non-apportioned) income tax,” in Direct Contradiction to: CONGRESSIONAL RECORD – HOUSE March 27, 1943. pages 2579-2581, and The CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE Report No. 84-168A, 784 / 275 “Some Constitutional Questions Regarding the Federal Income Tax Laws,” dated May 25, 1979, Updated September 26, 1984, HJ 4625: the Sixteenth Amendment…sought to restrain the Court from viewing an income tax as a direct tax…did not authorize any new type of tax, nor did it repeal or revoke the tax clauses of Article I of the Constitution,…Direct taxes were,…still subject to the rule of apportionment and indirect [excise] (“income”) taxes were still the subject of the rule of uniformity”❓

United States Eagle
Why has the United States Senate (@USSenate) COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY, Subcommittee on The Constitution, Let the Inferior Courts of the United States Misstate Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (@SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decisions delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15, 1915, Decided January 24, 1916), and Stanton v. Baltic Mining Company, 240 U.S. 103, No. 359 (Argued October 14 and 15, 1915, Decided February 21, 1916), for 34 years (1981-2015): “the sixteenth amendment was enacted for the express purpose of providing for a direct (non-apportioned) income tax,” in Direct Contradiction to: CONGRESSIONAL RECORD – HOUSE March 27, 1943. pages 2579-2581, and The CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE Report No. 84-168A, 784 / 275 “Some Constitutional Questions Regarding the Federal Income Tax Laws,” dated May 25, 1979, Updated September 26, 1984, HJ 4625: the Sixteenth Amendment…sought to restrain the Court from viewing an income tax as a direct tax…did not authorize any new type of tax, nor did it repeal or revoke the tax clauses of Article I of the Constitution,…Direct taxes were,…still subject to the rule of apportionment and indirect [excise] (“income”) taxes were still the subject of the rule of uniformity”❓
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http://wp.me/p5tuFO-hc
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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS FIRST SESSION VOLUME 89-PART 2 MARCH 27 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGES 2579 TO 2581) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1943
_________________________________________________
https://senate.gov
________________________________________________
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS FIRST SESSION VOLUME 89-PART 2 MARCH 27 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGE 2579) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1943 pg. 2579 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE 2579
_________________________________________________
http://www.senate.gov/committees/committees_home.htm
_________________________________________________
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS FIRST SESSION VOLUME 89-PART 2 MARCH 27 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGE 2580) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1943 pg. 2580 2580 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE MARCH 27
_________________________________________________
http://www.judiciary.senate.gov
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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS FIRST SESSION VOLUME 89-PART 2 MARCH 27 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGE 2581) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1943 pg. 2581 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE 2581
_________________________________________________
http://www.judiciary.senate.gov/about/subcommittees
_________________________________________________
UNITED STATES SENATE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY
_________________________________________________
http://www.judiciary.senate.gov/about/subcommittees#constitution
_________________________________________________
Subcommittee on The Constitution
_________________________________________________
Senator Cornyn, Chairman
@JohnCornyn

https://cornyn.senate.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Senator Durbin, Ranking Member
@SenatorDurbin

https://durbin.senate.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Senator Tillis
@SenThomTillis

https://tillis.senate.gov
_________________________________________________

@ThomTillis

_________________________________________________
Senator Graham
@GrahamBlog

https://lgraham.senate.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Senator Chris Coons
@ChrisCoons
(D – DE)
https://coons.senate.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Senator Cruz
@SenTedCruz

https://cruz.senate.gov
_________________________________________________

@TedCruz

@CruzNews2016

_________________________________________________
Senator Al Franken
@AlFranken
(D – MN)
https://franken.senate.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Senator Vitter
@DavidVitter

https://vitter.senate.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Majority Office

Phone: 202-224-7840
_________________________________________________
Minority Office

Phone: 202-224-1158
_________________________________________________
Jurisdiction:

(1) Constitutional amendments;

(2) Enforcement and protection of constitutional rights;

(3) Statutory guarantees of civil rights and civil liberties;

(4) Separation of powers;

(5) Federal-State relations;

(7) Human rights laws and practices;

(8) Enforcement and implementation of human rights laws
_________________________________________________
United States Congress U.S. Congress, U S Congress U. S. Congress @USCongress USCongress Congress #Congress
Why Has the United States Congress (@USCongress): The United States House of Representatives (@USHouseRep) and United States Senate (@USSenate), Joint Committee on Taxation (@jctgov) Allowed the Internal Revenue Service (#IRS) to Rely on Inferior Courts of the United States who Misstate the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (#SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decisions delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided January 24 1916), and Stanton v. Baltic Mining Company, 240 U.S. 103, No. 359 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided February 21, 1916), for 34 years (1981-2015): “the sixteenth amendment was enacted for the express purpose of providing for a direct (non-apportioned) income tax,” in Direct Contradiction to: CONGRESSIONAL RECORD – HOUSE March 27, 1943. pages 2579-2581, and The CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE Report No. 84-168A, 784 / 275 “Some Constitutional Questions Regarding the Federal Income Tax Laws,” dated May 25, 1979, Updated September 26, 1984, HJ 4625: the Sixteenth Amendment…sought to restrain the Court from viewing an income tax as a direct tax…did not authorize any new type of tax, nor did it repeal or revoke the tax clauses of Article I of the Constitution,…Direct taxes were,…still subject to the rule of apportionment and indirect [excise] (“income”) taxes were still the subject of the rule of uniformity”❓
________________________________________________
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-i4
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov 2015 IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov (IRS L📍a ®💲 Lie about Supreme Court of the United States opinion delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493, 1916)
——————————————————————
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-gp
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov 2015 IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
________________________________________________
Why Does the Congress of the United States of America Let the Internal Revenue Service (#IRS) Lie about the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (#SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decision delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided January 24 1916)❓
——————————————————————
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-g2
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
________________________________________________
Why Has the United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee Allowed the Inferior Courts of the United States to Misstate the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (#SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decision delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided January 24 1916), for 34 years (1981-2015): “the sixteenth amendment was enacted for the express purpose of providing for a direct (non-apportioned) income tax,” in Direct Contradiction to: Congressional Record – House March 27, 1943. pg 2580, and Congressional Research Service Report No. 84-168A, 784 / 275 “Some Constitutional Questions Regarding the Federal Income Tax Laws,” dated May 25, 1979, Updated September 26, 1984, HJ 4625: the Sixteenth Amendment…sought to restrain the Court from viewing an income tax as a direct tax…did not authorize any new type of tax, nor did it repeal or revoke the tax clauses of Article I of the Constitution,…Direct taxes were,…still subject to the rule of apportionment and indirect [excise] (“income”) taxes were still the subject of the rule of uniformity”❓
——————————————————————
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-hc
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
________________________________________________
Why Has the United States House of Representatives (@USHouseRep) Judiciary Committee (@HouseJudiciary) Allowed the Inferior Courts of the United States to Misstate the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (#SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decision delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided January 24 1916), for 34 years (1981-2015), in Direct Contradiction to: Congressional Record – House March 27, 1943 pg. 2580, and Congressional Research Service Report No. 84-168A, 784 / 275 “Some Constitutional Questions Regarding the Federal Income Tax Laws,” dated May 25, 1979, Updated September 26, 1984, HJ 4625❓
——————————————————————
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-hk
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
_________________________________________________
THE INCOME TAX IS AN EXCISE TAX, AND INCOME IS MERELY THE BASIS FOR DETERMINING ITS AMOUNT (UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record, PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION, VOLUME 89-PART 2, MARCH 27, 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGES 2579 TO 2581))
——————————————————————
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-jS
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
_________________________________________________
United States Constitution

First Amendment

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press;

or

THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE

peaceably to assemble,

and

TO PETITION THE GOVERNMENT

FOR A REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES
——————————————————————
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html
………………………………………………..
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights.html
_________________________________________________
Go Fund Me

#GoFundMe

gofundme.com/upsdgw
_________________________________________________

Why Has the United States Congress (@USCongress): The United States House of Representatives (@USHouseRep) and United States Senate (@USSenate), Joint Committee on Taxation (@jctgov) Allowed the Internal Revenue Service (#IRS) to Rely on Inferior Courts of the United States who Misstate the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (#SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decisions delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided January 24 1916), and Stanton v. Baltic Mining Company, 240 U.S. 103, No. 359 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided February 21, 1916), for 34 years (1981-2015): “the sixteenth amendment was enacted for the express purpose of providing for a direct (non-apportioned) income tax,” in Direct Contradiction to: CONGRESSIONAL RECORD – HOUSE March 27, 1943. pages 2579-2581, and The CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE Report No. 84-168A, 784 / 275 “Some Constitutional Questions Regarding the Federal Income Tax Laws,” dated May 25, 1979, Updated September 26, 1984, HJ 4625: the Sixteenth Amendment…sought to restrain the Court from viewing an income tax as a direct tax…did not authorize any new type of tax, nor did it repeal or revoke the tax clauses of Article I of the Constitution,…Direct taxes were,…still subject to the rule of apportionment and indirect [excise] (“income”) taxes were still the subject of the rule of uniformity”❓

United States Congress U.S. Congress, U S Congress U. S. Congress @USCongress USCongress Congress #Congress
Why Has the United States Congress (@USCongress): The United States House of Representatives (@USHouseRep) and United States Senate (@USSenate), Joint Committee on Taxation (@jctgov) Allowed the Internal Revenue Service (#IRS) to Rely on Inferior Courts of the United States who Misstate the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (#SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decisions delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided January 24 1916), and Stanton v. Baltic Mining Company, 240 U.S. 103, No. 359 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided February 21, 1916), for 34 years (1981-2015): “the sixteenth amendment was enacted for the express purpose of providing for a direct (non-apportioned) income tax,” in Direct Contradiction to: CONGRESSIONAL RECORD – HOUSE March 27, 1943. pages 2579-2581, and The CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE Report No. 84-168A, 784 / 275 “Some Constitutional Questions Regarding the Federal Income Tax Laws,” dated May 25, 1979, Updated September 26, 1984, HJ 4625: the Sixteenth Amendment…sought to restrain the Court from viewing an income tax as a direct tax…did not authorize any new type of tax, nor did it repeal or revoke the tax clauses of Article I of the Constitution,…Direct taxes were,…still subject to the rule of apportionment and indirect [excise] (“income”) taxes were still the subject of the rule of uniformity”❓
——————————————————————
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-hc
________________________________________________
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS FIRST SESSION VOLUME 89-PART 2 MARCH 27 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGES 2579 TO 2581) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1943
________________________________________________
https://senate.gov
________________________________________________
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS FIRST SESSION VOLUME 89-PART 2 MARCH 27 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGE 2579) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1943 pg. 2579 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE 2579
________________________________________________
http://www.senate.gov/committees/committees_home.htm
_________________________________________________
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS FIRST SESSION VOLUME 89-PART 2 MARCH 27 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGE 2580) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1943 pg. 2580 2580 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE MARCH 27
________________________________________________
THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON TAXATION
________________________________________________
https://www.jct.gov/
_________________________________________________
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS FIRST SESSION VOLUME 89-PART 2 MARCH 27 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGE 2581) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1943 pg. 2581 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE 2581
_________________________________________________
Committee Members

114th Congress, 1st Session
________________________________________________
HOUSE
________________________________________________
Paul Ryan, Chairman
@RepPaulRyan
Wisconsin
https://paulryan.house.gov
________________________________________________

@PRyan

________________________________________________
Sam Johnson
@SamsPressShop
Texas
https://samjohnson.house.gov
_________________________________________________

________________________________________________
Kevin Brady
@RepKevinBrady
Texas
https://kevinbrady.house.gov
________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Sander M. Levin
@RepSandyLevin
Michigan
https://levin.house.gov
________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Charles B. Rangel
@CBRangel
New York
https://rangel.house.gov
________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
SENATE
________________________________________________
Orrin G. Hatch, Vice Chairman
@SenOrrinHatch
Utah
https://hatch.senate.gov
_________________________________________________

________________________________________________
Chuck Grassley
@ChuckGrassley
Iowa
https://grassley.senate.gov
_________________________________________________

________________________________________________
Mike Crapo
@MikeCrapo
Idaho
https://crapo.senate.gov
_________________________________________________

________________________________________________
Ron Wyden
@RonWyden
Oregon
https://wyden.senate.gov
_________________________________________________

________________________________________________
Debbie Stabenow
@Stabenow
Michigan
https://stabenow.senate.gov
_________________________________________________

@DebbieTeam

________________________________________________
The Joint Committee on Taxation
1625 Longworth House Office Building
Washington, DC 20515

Front Office: (202) 225-3621
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov 2015 IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov (IRS L📍a ®💲 Lie about Supreme Court of the United States opinion delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493, 1916)
——————————————————————
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-gp
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov 2015 IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
________________________________________________
Why Does the Congress of the United States of America Let the Internal Revenue Service (#IRS) Lie about the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (#SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decision delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided January 24 1916)❓
——————————————————————
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-g2
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
________________________________________________
Why Has the United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee Allowed the Inferior Courts of the United States to Misstate the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (#SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decision delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided January 24 1916), for 34 years (1981-2015): “the sixteenth amendment was enacted for the express purpose of providing for a direct (non-apportioned) income tax,” in Direct Contradiction to: Congressional Record – House March 27, 1943. pg 2580, and Congressional Research Service Report No. 84-168A, 784 / 275 “Some Constitutional Questions Regarding the Federal Income Tax Laws,” dated May 25, 1979, Updated September 26, 1984, HJ 4625: the Sixteenth Amendment…sought to restrain the Court from viewing an income tax as a direct tax…did not authorize any new type of tax, nor did it repeal or revoke the tax clauses of Article I of the Constitution,…Direct taxes were,…still subject to the rule of apportionment and indirect [excise] (“income”) taxes were still the subject of the rule of uniformity”❓
——————————————————————
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-hc
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
________________________________________________
Why Has the United States House of Representatives (@USHouseRep) Judiciary Committee (@HouseJudiciary) Allowed the Inferior Courts of the United States to Misstate the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (#SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decision delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided January 24 1916), for 34 years (1981-2015), in Direct Contradiction to: Congressional Record – House March 27, 1943 pg. 2580, and Congressional Research Service Report No. 84-168A, 784 / 275 “Some Constitutional Questions Regarding the Federal Income Tax Laws,” dated May 25, 1979, Updated September 26, 1984, HJ 4625❓
——————————————————————
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-hk
________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
_________________________________________________
THE INCOME TAX IS AN EXCISE TAX, AND INCOME IS MERELY THE BASIS FOR DETERMINING ITS AMOUNT (UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record, PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION, VOLUME 89-PART 2, MARCH 27, 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGES 2579 TO 2581))
——————————————————————
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-jS
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
_________________________________________________
United States Constitution

First Amendment

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press;

or

THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE

peaceably to assemble,

and

TO PETITION THE GOVERNMENT

FOR A REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES
——————————————————————
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html
………………………………………………..
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights.html
_________________________________________________
Go Fund Me

#GoFundMe

gofundme.com/upsdgw
_________________________________________________

Why Has the United States House of Representatives (@USHouseRep) Judiciary Committee (@HouseJudiciary) Allowed the Inferior Courts of the United States to Misstate the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (#SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decision delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided January 24 1916), for 34 years (1981-2015), in Direct Contradiction to: Congressional Record – House March 27, 1943 pg. 2580, and Congressional Research Service Report No. 84-168A, 784 / 275 “Some Constitutional Questions Regarding the Federal Income Tax Laws,” dated May 25, 1979, Updated September 26, 1984, HJ 4625❓

THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov of. 28 IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
Why Has the United States House of Representatives (@USHouseRep) Judiciary Committee (@HouseJudiciary) Allowed the Inferior Courts of the United States to Misstate the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (#SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decision delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided January 24 1916), for 34 years (1981-2015), in Direct Contradiction to: Congressional Record – House March 27, 1943 pg. 2580, and Congressional Research Service Report No. 84-168A, 784 / 275 “Some Constitutional Questions Regarding the Federal Income Tax Laws,” dated May 25, 1979, Updated September 26, 1984, HJ 4625❓
_________________________________________________
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-hc
_________________________________________________
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS FIRST SESSION VOLUME 89-PART 2 MARCH 27 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGES 2579 TO 2581) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1943
_________________________________________________
https://judiciary.house.gov
_________________________________________________
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS FIRST SESSION VOLUME 89-PART 2 MARCH 27 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGE 2579) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1943 pg. 2579 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE 2579
_________________________________________________
https://house.gov
_________________________________________________
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS FIRST SESSION VOLUME 89-PART 2 MARCH 27 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGE 2580) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1943 pg. 2580 2580 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE MARCH 27
_________________________________________________
UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES JUDICIARY COMMITTEE
_________________________________________________
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS FIRST SESSION VOLUME 89-PART 2 MARCH 27 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGE 2581) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1943 pg. 2581 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE 2581
_________________________________________________
Subcommittee on the Constitution and Civil Justice
_________________________________________________
Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property, and the Internet
_________________________________________________
REPUBLICANS
_________________________________________________
Rep. Bob Goodlatte
@RepGoodlatte
Chairman – (R) Virginia, 6th District
https://goodlatte.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Lamar Smith
@LamarSmithTX21
(R) Texas, 21st District
https://lamarsmith.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property, and the Internet
Chairman
Rep. Darrell Issa
@DarrellIssa
(R) California, 49th District
https://issa.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Steve King
@SteveKingIA
(R) Iowa, 4th District
https://steveking.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Louie Gohmert
@RepLouieGohmert
(R) Texas, 1st District
https://gohmert.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Ted Poe
@JudgeTedPoe
(R) Texas, 2nd District
https://poe.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Tom Marino
@RepTomMarino
(R) Pennsylvania, 10th District
https://marino.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Raul Labrador
@Raul_Labrador
(R) Idaho, 1st District
https://labrador.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property, and the Internet
Vice-Chairman
Rep. Doug Collins
@RepDougCollins
(R) Georgia, 9th District
https://dougcollins.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Mimi Walters
@RepMimiWalters
(R) California, 45th District
https://walters.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. John Ratcliffe
@RatcliffeTX4
(R) Texas, 4th District
https://ratcliffe.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Mike Bishop
@MikeBishopMI
Michigan, 8th District
https://mikebishop.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Jim Sensenbrenner, Jr.
@JimPressOffice
(R) Wisconsin, 5th District
https://sensenbrenner.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Steve Chabot
@RepSteveChabot
(R) Ohio, 1st District
https://chabot.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Randy Forbes
@SeapowerChair
(R) Virginia, 4th District
https://forbes.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Trent Franks
@RepTrentFranks
(R) Arizona, 8th District
https://franks.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Jim Jordan
@Jim_Jordan
(R) Ohio, 4th District
https://jordan.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Jason Chaffetz
@jasoninthehouse
(R) Utah, 3rd District
https://chaffetz.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Trey Gowdy
@TGowdySC
(R) South Carolina, 4th District
https://gowdy.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Blake Farenthold
@Farenthold
(R) Texas, 27th District
https://farenthold.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Ron DeSantis
@RepDeSantis
(R) Florida, 6th District
https://desantis.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Ken Buck
@RepKenBuck
(R) Colorado, 4th District
https://buck.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Dave Trott
@RepDaveTrott
(R) Michigan, 11th District
https://trott.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
DEMOCRATS
_________________________________________________
Rep. John Conyers, Jr.
@RepJohnConyers
Ranking Member – (D) Michigan, 13th District
https://conyers.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Zoe Lofgren
@RepZoeLofgren
(D) California, 19th District
https://lofgren.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Steve Cohen
@RepCohen
(D) Tennessee, 9th District
https://cohen.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Pedro Pierluisi
@PedroPierluisi
(D) Puerto Rico, (At-large)
https://piertuisi.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Ted Deutch
@RepTedDeutch
(D) Florida, 21st District
https://teddeutch.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Karen Bass
@RepKarenBass
(D) California, 37th District
https://bass.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Suzan DelBene
@RepDelBene
(D) Washington, 1st District
https://delbene.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. David Cicilline
@RepCicilline
(D) Rhode Island, 1st District
https://cicilline.house.gov
_________________________________________________

@DavidCicilline

_________________________________________________
Rep. Jerry Nadler
@RepJerryNadler
(D) New York, 10th District
https://nadler.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee
@JacksonLeeTX18
(D) Texas, 18th District
https://jacksonlee.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Hank Johnson
@RepHankJohnson
(D) Georgia, 4th District
https://hankjohnson.house.gov
_________________________________________________

@HankStaffers

_________________________________________________
Rep. Judy Chu
@RepJudyChu
(D) California, 27th District
https://chu.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Luis Gutierrez
@RepGutierrez
(D) Illinois, 4th District
https://gutierrez.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Cedric Richmond
@RepRichmond
(D) Louisiana, 2nd District
https://richmond.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Hakeem Jeffries
@RepJeffries
(D) New York, 8th District
https://jeffries.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
Rep. Scott Peters
@RepScottPeters
(D) California, 52nd District
https://scottpeters.house.gov
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
THE INCOME TAX IS AN EXCISE TAX, AND INCOME IS MERELY THE BASIS FOR DETERMINING ITS AMOUNT (UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record, PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION, VOLUME 89-PART 2, MARCH 27, 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGES 2579 TO 2581))
——————————————————————
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-jS
_________________________________________________
United States Constitution

First Amendment

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press;

or

THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE

peaceably to assemble,

and

TO PETITION THE GOVERNMENT

FOR A REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES
——————————————————————
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html
………………………………………………..
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights.html
_________________________________________________
Go Fund Me

#GoFundMe

gofundme.com/upsdgw
_________________________________________________

Why Does the Congress of the United States of America Let the Internal Revenue Service (#IRS) Lie about the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (#SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decision delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided January 24 1916)❓

Congressional Record 1943Why Does the Congress of the United States of America Let the Internal Revenue Service (#IRS) Lie about the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (#SCOTUS) Sixteenth Amendment Income Tax Decision delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493 (Argued October 14 and 15 1915, Decided January 24 1916)❓
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov pg. 28 IRS I.R.S. Internal Revenue Service Liars
_________________________________________________
OVERSIGHT & GOVERNMENT REFORM
http://oversight.house.gov/
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov pg.18 IRS I.R.S. Internal Revenue Service Liars
Committee Chairman
Rep. Jason Chaffetz
@jasoninthehouse
Utah 3rd District
https://chaffetz.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/598823177108742144
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS January 2015 IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
_________________________________________________
Ranking Member
Rep. Elijah E. Cummings
@RepCummings
Maryland 7th District
https://cummings.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/598825430796390400
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS January 2015 IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
_________________________________________________
REPUBLICAN COMMITTEE MEMBERS
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
_________________________________________________
Blake Farenthold
@Farenthold
Texas 27th District
https://farenthold.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/598978513396457472
_________________________________________________
Buddy Carter
@RepBuddyCarter
Georgia 1st District
https://buddycarter.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/598996609737752576
@Buddy_Carter
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/598997497265004544
_________________________________________________
Cynthia Lummis
@CynthiaLummis
Wyoming
https://lummis.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599011808536449024
_________________________________________________
Gary J. Palmer
@USRepGaryPalmer
Alabama 6th District
https://palmer.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599027769389940736
@Palmer4Alabama
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599200728972820480
_________________________________________________
Glenn Grothman
@RepGrothman
Wisconsin 6th District
https://grothman.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599340184887504896
_________________________________________________
Jody Hice
@CongressmanHice
Georgia 10th District
https://hice.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599372759131561985
@JodyHice
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599387134571651072
_________________________________________________
John J. Duncan, Jr.
@RepJohnDuncanJr
Tennessee 2nd District
https://duncan.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599410794699194369
_________________________________________________
John Mica
@RepJohnMica
Florida 7th District
https://mica.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599548802576453632
_________________________________________________
Justin Amash
@RepJustinAmash
Michigan 3rd District
https://amash.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599570166125502465
_________________________________________________
Ken Buck
@RepKenBuck
Colorado 4th District
https://buck.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599590738167406593
_________________________________________________
Mark Meadows
@RepMarkMeadows
North Carolina 11th District
https://meadows.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599604351443709952
_________________________________________________
Mark Walker
@RepMarkWalker
North Carolina 6th District
https://walker.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599621328962850816
_________________________________________________
Michael Turner
Mike Turner
@RepMikeTurner
Ohio 10th District
https://turner.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599628499276664832
_________________________________________________
Mick Mulvaney
@RepMickMulvaney
South Carolina 5th District
https://mulvaney.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599658815403917312
@MickMulvaney
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599674491791224832
_________________________________________________
Paul Gosar
@RepGosar
Arizona 4th District
https://gosar.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599689358896197632
_________________________________________________
Rod Blum
@RepRodBlum
Iowa 1st District
https://blum.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599703152523386880
_________________________________________________
Ron DeSantis
@RepDeSantis
Florida 6th District
https://desantis.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599718679035584512
_________________________________________________
Scott Desjarlais
@DesJarlaisTN04
Tennessee 4th District
https://desjarlais.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599733875493863424
@TNDesJarlais
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599751111101325312
_________________________________________________
Rep. Steve Dane Russell
Steven Dane Russell
@RepRussell
Oklahoma 5th District
https://russell.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/599763765706428417
_________________________________________________
Rep. Thomas Massie
@RepThomasMassie
Kentucky 4th District
https://massie.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600270846993833984
_________________________________________________
Rep. Tim Walberg
@RepWalberg
Michigan 7th District
https://walberg.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600345247646949378
_________________________________________________
Rep. Trey Gowdy
@TGowdySC
(R) South Carolina, 4th District
https://gowdy.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600428899755921411
_________________________________________________
Rep. William Ballard Hurd
Will Ballard Hurd
@HurdOnTheHill
Texas 23rd District
https://hurd.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600436000909721600
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
_________________________________________________
DEMOCRAT COMMITTEE MEMBERS
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
_________________________________________________
Bonnie Watson Coleman
@RepBWColeman
New Jersey 12th District
https://watsoncoleman.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600452234321723392
_________________________________________________
Brenda L. Lawrence
@RepLawrence
@BrendaLLawrence
Michigan 14th District
https://lawrence.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600466912292679681
@BrendaLLawrence
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600481692768280576
_________________________________________________
Brendan F. Boyle
@RepBrendanBoyle
Pennsylvania 13th District
https://boyle.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600645886310535168
_________________________________________________
William Lacy Clay, Jr.
@LacyClayMO1
Missouri 1st District
https://lacyclay.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600792562505359360
_________________________________________________
Ladda Tammy Duckworth
@RepDuckworth
Illinois 8th District
https://duckworth.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600803424498634752
_________________________________________________
Stephen F. Lynch
@RepStephenLynch
@RepLynch
Massachusetts 8th District
https://lynch.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600816074976841728
_________________________________________________
Stacey E. Plaskett
@StaceyPlaskett
U.S. Virgin Islands
https://plaskett.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600828623382155265
_________________________________________________
Carolyn Maloney
@RepMaloney
New York 12th District
https://maloney.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600845209530802176
@CarolynBMaloney
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/600859888424656897
_________________________________________________
Eleanor Holmes Norton
@EleanorNorton
District of Columbia
https://norton.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/601009494080954368
_________________________________________________
Gerald E. Connolly
@GeraldConnolly
Virginia 11th District
https://connolly.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/601069903714656256
_________________________________________________
Jim Cooper
@RepJimCooper
Tennessee 5th District
https://cooper.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/601150708591763456
_________________________________________________
Mark DeSaulnier
@RepDeSaulnier
California 11th District
https://desaulnier.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/601163805230432256
_________________________________________________
Matt Cartwright
@RepCartwright
Pennsylvania 17th District
https://cartwright.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/601175732090318848
_________________________________________________
Michelle Lujan Grisham
@RepLujanGrisham
New Mexico 1st District
https://lujangrisham.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/601192527467651072
_________________________________________________
Peter Welch
@PeterWelch
Vermont
https://welch.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/601205345277456384
_________________________________________________
Robin Kelly
@RepRobinKelly
Illinois 2nd District
https://robinkelly.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/601220680705830912
_________________________________________________
Ted Lieu
@RepTedLieu
California 33rd District
https://lieu.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/601357233725800449
@TedLieu
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/601432289768148992
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS IRS I.R.S. #IRS Internal Revenue Service
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS - IRS.gov IRS I.R.S. Internal Revenue Service Liars
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov (IRS L📍a ®💲 Lie about Supreme Court of the United States opinion delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493, 1916)
——————————————————————
https://backassardalabama.wordpress.com/2015/05/11/the-truth-about-frivolous-tax-arguments-irs-gov-irs-l%F0%9F%93a-%8D%F0%9F%92-lie-about-supreme-court-of-the-united-states-opinion-delivered-by-mr-chief-justice-white-in-brushaber-v-union-p/
_________________________________________________
THE INCOME TAX IS AN EXCISE TAX, AND INCOME IS MERELY THE BASIS FOR DETERMINING ITS AMOUNT (UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Congressional Record, PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 78th CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION, VOLUME 89-PART 2, MARCH 27, 1943 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE (PAGES 2579 TO 2581))
——————————————————————
http://wp.me/p5tuFO-jS
_________________________________________________
United States Constitution

First Amendment

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press;

or

THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE

peaceably to assemble,

and

TO PETITION THE GOVERNMENT

FOR A REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES
——————————————————————
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html
………………………………………………..
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights.html
_________________________________________________
U.S. House of Representatives
Washington, DC 20515
TEL: (202) 224-3121
TTY: (202) 225-1904
_________________________________________________
ALABAMA
_________________________________________________
Bradley Byrne
@RepByrne
Alabama, 1st District
https://byrne.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/608785179344162816
_________________________________________________
Martha Roby
@RepMarthaRoby
Alabama, 2nd District
https://roby.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/608795384140300288
_________________________________________________
Mike Rogers
@RepMikeRogers
Alabama, 3rd District
https://rogers.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/608810287882481664
_________________________________________________
Robert Aderholt
@Robert_Aderholt
Alabama, 4th District
https://aderholt.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/608824497395793920
_________________________________________________
Mo Brooks
@RepMoBrooks
Alabama, 5th District
https://brooks.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/608839479038595072
_________________________________________________
Terri A. Sewell
@RepTerriSewell
Alabama, 7th District
https://sewell.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/609125127788363776
_________________________________________________
ALASKA
________________________________________________
Don Young
@RepDonYoung
Alaska, At-Large District (R)
https://donyoung.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/610574610757758978
________________________________________________
AMERICAN SAMOA
________________________________________________
Amata Radewagen
@RepAmata
American Samoa, At-Large District (R)
https://radewagen.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/610586506764394497
________________________________________________
ARIZONA
________________________________________________
Ann Kirkpatrick
@RepKirkpatrick
Arizona, 1st District
https://kirkpatrick.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/610604043233181697
@Ann_Kirkpatrick
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/610617345262747648
________________________________________________
Martha McSally
@RepMcSally
Arizona, 2nd District
https://mcsally.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/610629423231029248
________________________________________________
Raul Grijalva
@RepRaulGrijalva
Arizona, 3rd District
https://grijalva.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/610651818666934272
@RepGrijalvaCS
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/610801028439519234
________________________________________________
Matt Salmon
@RepMattSalmon
Arizona, 5th District
https://salmon.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/610936389593513984
________________________________________________
David Schweikert
@RepDavid
Arizona, 6th District
https://schweikert.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/610953668016254976
________________________________________________
Ruben Gallego
@RepRubenGallego
Arizona, 7th District
https://rubengallego.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/610964763154227201
@RubenGallego
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/610986448943079425
________________________________________________
Trent Franks
@RepTrentFranks
Arizona, 8th District
https://franks.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/611001924909953024
________________________________________________
Kyrsten Sinema
@RepSinema
Arizona, 9th District
https://sinema.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/611298594038149122
@KyrstenSinema
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/611310941397983232
_________________________________________________
ARKANSAS
________________________________________________
Rick Crawford
@RepRickCrawford
Arkansas, 1st District (R)
https://crawford.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/611316264594731008
________________________________________________
French Hill
@RepFrenchHill
Arkansas, 2nd District (R)
https://hill.housegov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/611327039279251457
________________________________________________
Stephen A. Womack
Steve Womack
@Rep_SteveWomack
Arkansas, 3rd District (R)
https://womack.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/611342634536206336
________________________________________________
Bruce Eugene Westerman
@RepWesterman
Arkansas, 4th District (R)
https://westerman.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/611357344937717760
@Bruce_Westerman
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/611372415474515968
________________________________________________
CALIFORNIA
________________________________________________
Doug LaMalfa
@RepLaMalfa
California, 1st District (R)
https://lamalfa.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/611659283667640320
________________________________________________
Jared Huffman
@RepHuffman
California, 2nd District (D)
https://huffman.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/611669944011374593
________________________________________________
John Garamendi
@RepGaramendi
California, 3rd District (D)
https://garamendi.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/611677481133862912
________________________________________________
Tom McClintock
@RepMcClintock
California, 4th District (R)
https://mcclintock.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/611702279935168512
@TomMcClintock
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/611719934146510848
________________________________________________
Mike Thompson
@RepThompson
California, 5th District (D)
https://mikethompson.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/612023982343258112
________________________________________________
Doris O. Matsui
@DorisMatsui
California, 6th District (D)
https://matsui.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/612036677477994496
________________________________________________
Ami B. Bera
@RepBera
California, 7th District (D)
https://bera.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/612055867064594432
________________________________________________
Paul Cook
@RepPaulCook
California, 8th District (R)
https://cook.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/612069588973522944
________________________________________________
Jerry McNerney
@RepMcNerney
California, 9th District (D)
https://mcnerney.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/612098442878267393
@JerryMcNerney
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/612274033619542016
________________________________________________
Jeff Denham
@RepJeffDenham
California, 10th District (R)
https://denham.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/612292843353325568
________________________________________________
Nancy Pelosi
@NancyPelosi
California, 12th District (D)
https://pelosi.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/612304666186022913
@PelosiNews
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/612378453615226880
________________________________________________
Barbara Lee
@RepBarbaraLee
California, 13th District (D)
https://lee.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/612390375471337472
________________________________________________
Jackie Speier
@RepSpeier
California, 14th District (D)
https://speier.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/612418510241710080
@JackieSpeier
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613111329071738880
________________________________________________
Eric Swalwell
@RepSwalwell
California, 15th District (D)
https://swalwell.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613127469130854400
@EricSwalwell
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613140210302496773
________________________________________________
Jim Costa
@RepJimCosta
California, 16th District (D)
https://costa.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613155497903038464
________________________________________________
Mike Honda
@RepMikeHonda
California, 17th District (D)
https://honda.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613167918344482817
________________________________________________
Anna G. Eshoo
@RepAnnaEshoo
California, 18th District (D)
https://eshoo.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613471236841152513
________________________________________________
Zoe Lofgren
@RepZoeLofgren
California, 19th District (D)
https://lofgren.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613488883125325824
________________________________________________
Sam Farr
@RepSamFarr
California, 20th District (D)
https://farr.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613503407345680384
________________________________________________
David Valadao
@RepDavidValadao
California, 21st District
https://valadao.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613514605441105920
@DGValadao
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613528723703201792
________________________________________________
Devin Nunes
@Rep_DevinNunes
California, 22nd District (R)
https://nunes.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613850898800861184
@DevinNunes
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613835589121646592
________________________________________________
Kevin McCarthy
@KevinOMcCarthy
California, 23rd District (R)
https://kevinmccarthy.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613866272586137600
@GOPLeader
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613874347237855233
________________________________________________
Lois Capps
@RepLoisCapps
California, 24th District (D)
https://capps.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/613889329266597888
________________________________________________
Steve Knight
@SteveKnight25
California, 25th District (R)
https://knight.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614196352701083652
________________________________________________
Julia Brownley
@JuliaBrownley26
California, 26th District (D)
https://juliabrownley.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614212328985391104
________________________________________________
Judy Chu
@RepJudyChu
California, 27th District (D)
https://chu.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614222787943768064
________________________________________________
Adam Schiff
@RepAdamSchiff
California, 28th District (D)
https://schiff.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614236686114025477
________________________________________________
Peter Rey “Pete” Aguilar
Pete Aguilar
@RepPeteAguilar
California, 31st District (D)
https://aguilar.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614575243173212160
@AguilarPete
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614584661738659840
________________________________________________
Grace Napolitano
@GraceNapolitano
California, 32nd District (D)
https://napolitano.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614601894577745920
________________________________________________
Xavier Becerra
@RepBecerra
California, 34th District (D)
https://becerra.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614811166532075521
________________________________________________
Norma Torres
@NormaJTorres
California, 35th District (D)
https://torres.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614826790469697537
________________________________________________
Raul Ruiz
@CongressmanRuiz
California, 36th District (D)
https://ruiz.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614848442490294274
________________________________________________
Karen Bass
@RepKarenBass
California, 37th District (D)
https://bass.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614855759277518849
________________________________________________
Linda T. Sánchez
@RepLindaSanchez
California, 38th District (D)
https://lindasanchez.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614871680264085504
________________________________________________
Ed Royce
@RepEdRoyce
California, 39th District (R)
https://royce.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614886247803285505
________________________________________________
Lucille Allard-Roybal
@RepRoybalAllard
California, 40th District (D)
https://roybal-allard.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614901505414590464
________________________________________________
Mark Takano
@RepMarkTakano
California, 41st District (D)
https://takano.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614917413986025473
________________________________________________
Ken Calvert
@KenCalvert
California, 42nd District (R)
https://calvert.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614931210737983488
________________________________________________
Maxine Waters
@MaxineWaters
California, 43rd District (D)
https://waters.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614946767017242624
________________________________________________
Janice Hahn
@Rep_JaniceHahn
California, 44th District (D)
https://hahn.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614962695444561920
@JaniceHahn
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/614976980266676225
________________________________________________
Mimi Walters
@RepMimiWalters
California, 45th District (R)
https://walters.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/615648191548002304
@MimiWaltersCA
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/615661675568582658
________________________________________________
Loretta Sanchez
@LorettaSanchez
California, 46th District (D)
https://lorettasanchez.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/615677000066408448
________________________________________________
Alan Lowenthal
@RepLowenthal
California, 47th District (D)
https://lowenthal.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/615690001293119489
________________________________________________
Dana Rohrabacher
@RepRohrabacher
@DanaRohrabacher
@Rohrabacher
California, 48th District (R)
https://rohrabacher.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/616020039091810304
@DanaRohrabacher
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/616010801246302208
@Rohrabacher
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/616034883144691712
________________________________________________
Darrell Issa
@DarrellIssa
California, 49th District (R)
https://issa.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/616055087564201985
________________________________________________
Duncan D. Hunter
@Rep_Hunter
California, 50th District (R)
https://hunter.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/616371293173252096
________________________________________________
Juan Vargas
@RepJuanVargas
California, 51st District (D)
https://vargas.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/616385136955949059
________________________________________________
Scott Peters
@RepScottPeters
California, 52nd District (D)
https://scottpeters.house.gov
________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/616402674272108544
@ScottPetersSD
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/616418652389285889
@ScottPetersCA52
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/616426362878959617
________________________________________________
Susan Davis
@RepSusanDavis
California, 53rd District (D)
https://susandavis.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/616734530511237121
_________________________________________________
COLORADO
_________________________________________________
Diana DeGette
@RepDianaDeGette
Colorado, 1st District (D)
https://DeGette.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/616780167671869440
@DeGette5280
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/616788549279580164
_________________________________________________
Jared Polis
@RepJaredPolis
Colorado, 2nd District (D)
https://polis.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/617094838173966336
@JaredPolis
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/617105850356887552
_________________________________________________
Scott R. Tipton
@RepTipton
Colorado, 3rd District (R)
https://tipton.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/617121232358637570
_________________________________________________
Doug Lamborn
@RepDLamborn
Colorado, 5th District (R)
https://lamborn.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/617137725007728640
_________________________________________________
Mike Coffman
@RepMikeCoffman
Colorado, 6th District (R)
https://coffman.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/617151850043863040
_________________________________________________
Edwin George Perlmutter
Ed Perlmutter
@RepPerlmutter
Colorado, 7th District (D)
https://perlmutter.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/617167592348852224
_________________________________________________
CONNECTICUT
_________________________________________________
John B. Larson
@RepJohnLarson
Connecticut, 1st District (D)
https://larson.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618185249483280385
_________________________________________________
Joe Courtney
@RepJoeCourtney
Connecticut, 2nd District (D)
https://courtney.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618196850441613312
_________________________________________________
Rosa L. DeLauro
@RosaDeLauro
Connecticut, 3rd District (D)
https://delauro.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618227360060583936
_________________________________________________
Jim Himes
@JAHimes
Connecticut, 4th District (D)
https://himes.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618240969088049152
_________________________________________________
Elizabeth Esty
@RepEsty
Connecticut, 5th District (D)
https://esty.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618253789510901760
_________________________________________________
DELAWARE
_________________________________________________
John Carney
@JohnCarneyDE
Delaware, At-Large District (D)
https://johncarney.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618547297136324609
@John_Carney
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618559504221929476
_________________________________________________
FLORIDA
_________________________________________________
Jeff Miller
@RepJeffMiller
Florida, 1st District (R)
https://jeffmiller.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618575153744711680
_________________________________________________
Gwen Graham
@RepGwenGraham
Florida, 2nd District (D)
https://graham.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618589224569212928
_________________________________________________
Ted Yoho
@RepTedYoho
Florida, 3rd District (R)
https://yoho.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618602541622890496
@TedYoho
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618615652128018433
_________________________________________________
Ander Crenshaw
@AnderCrenshaw
Florida, 4th District (R)
https://crenshaw.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618907214347173889
_________________________________________________
Corrine Brown
@RepCorrineBrown
Florida, 5th District (D)
https://corrinebrown.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618921033504915456
_________________________________________________
Bill Posey
@CongBillPosey
Florida, 8th District (R)
https://posey.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618934231973167104
_________________________________________________
Alan Grayson
@AlanGrayson
Florida, 9th District (D)
https://grayson.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618948350092660737
_________________________________________________
Daniel Webster
@RepWebster
Florida, 10th District (R)
https://webster.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618963293517017089
_________________________________________________
Richard B. Nugent
@RepRichNugent
Florida, 11th District (R)
https://nugent.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/618978994042572800
_________________________________________________
Gus Michael Bilirakis
@RepGusBilirakis
Florida, 12th District (R)
https://bilirakis.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619269871310893056
_________________________________________________
David W. Jolly
@USRepDavidJolly
Florida, 13th District (R)
https://jolly.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619280232189706240
_________________________________________________
Kathy Castor
@USRepKCastor
Florida, 14th District (D)
https://castor.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619298869332049920
_________________________________________________
Dennis A. Ross
@RepDennisRoss
Florida, 15th District (R)
https://dennisross.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619310923614945280
_________________________________________________
Vern Buchanan
@VernBuchanan
Florida, 16th District (R)
https://buchanan.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619325472384655364
_________________________________________________
Thomas J. Rooney
Tom Rooney
@TomRooney
Florida, 17th District (R)
https://rooney.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619340748291473408
_________________________________________________
Patrick E. Murphy
@RepMurphyFL
Florida, 18th District (D)
https://patrickmurphy.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619634376217886720
@PatrickMurphyFL
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619642259030581249
_________________________________________________
Curtis Clawson
Curt Clawson
@RepCurtClawson
Florida, 19th District (R)
https://clawson.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619658128141979648
_________________________________________________
Alcee L. Hastings
@RepHastingsFL
Florida, 20th District (D)
https://alceehastings.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619675354479902720
_________________________________________________
Ted Deutch
@RepTedDeutch
Florida, 21st District (D)
https://teddeutch.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619688410362605568
_________________________________________________
Lois Frankel
@RepLoisFrankel
Florida, 22nd District (D)
https://frankel.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619869041218428928
_________________________________________________
Debbie Wasserman Schultz
@DWStweets
Florida, 23rd District (D)
https://wassermanschultz.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619884536487395329
@RepDWStweets
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619899697113755648
_________________________________________________
Frederica S. Wilson
@RepWilson
Florida, 24th District (D)
https://wilson.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619915516472369152
_________________________________________________
Mario Diaz-Balart
@MarioDB
Florida, 25th District (R)
https://mariodiazbalart.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619932463465398276
_________________________________________________
Carlos Curbelo
@CarlosLCurbelo
Florida, 26th District (R)
https://curbelo.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619947210256588800
@RepCurbelo
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619960329968177152
_________________________________________________
Ileana Ros-Lehtinen
@RosLehtinen
Florida, 27th District (R)
https://ros-lehtinen.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619974547983495168
_________________________________________________
GEORGIA
_________________________________________________
Sanford D. Bishop Jr.
@SanfordBishop
Georgia, 2nd District (D)
https://bishop.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/619989773374095361
_________________________________________________
Lynn A. Westmoreland
@RepWestmoreland
Georgia, 3rd District (R)
https:westmoreland.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/620010058147983361
_________________________________________________
Henry C. “Hank” Johnson Jr.
@RepHankJohnson
Georgia, 4th District (D)
https://hankjohnson.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/620024349521801216
_________________________________________________
John Lewis
@RepJohnLewis
Georgia, 5th District (D)
https://johnlewis.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/620720419071467520
_________________________________________________
Tom Price
@RepTomPrice
Georgia, 6th District (R)
https://tomprice.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/620730487963799557
_________________________________________________
William Robert Woodall III
Robert Woodall
@RepRobWoodall
Georgia, 7th District (R)
https://woodall.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/620747837102493696
_________________________________________________
Austin Scott
@AustinScottGA08
Georgia, 8th District (R)
https://austinscott.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/620760772109574144
_________________________________________________
Doug Collins
@RepDougCollins
Georgia, 9th District (R)
https://dougcollins.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/620776587571671040
_________________________________________________
Barry Loudermilk
@RepLoudermilk
Georgia, 11th District (D)
https://loudermilk.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/620790387913924608
_________________________________________________
Rick W. Allen
@RickAllen
Georgia, 12th District (R)
https://allen.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621082815774519296
@RepRickAllen
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621092357996433409
_________________________________________________
David Scott
@RepDavidScott
Georgia, 13th District (D)
https://davidscott.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621107101880815616
_________________________________________________
John Thomas Graves Jr.
Tom Graves
@RepTomGraves
Georgia, 14th District (R)
https://tomgraves.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621122213173960704
_________________________________________________
HAWAII
_________________________________________________
Mark Takai
@RepMarkTakai
Hawaii, 1st District (D)
https://takai.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621454202431275008
@MarkTakai
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621444943341596673
_________________________________________________
Tulsi Gabbard
@TulsiGabbard
Hawaii, 2nd District (D)
https://gabbard.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621470237930692608
@TulsiPress
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621485416617766916
_________________________________________________
IDAHO
_________________________________________________
Raul Rafael Labrador
Raul R. Labrador
@Raul_Labrador
Idaho, 1st District (R)
https://labrador.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621499520220835841
_________________________________________________
Michael K. Simpson
Mike Simpson
@CongMikeSimpson
Idaho, 2nd District (R)
https://simpson.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621514675172282368
@MikeSimpson4ID
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621806299492282368
_________________________________________________
ILLINOIS
_________________________________________________
Bobby L. Rush
@RepBobbyRush
Illinois, 1st District (D)
https://rush.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621818917833560064
_________________________________________________
Daniel Lipinski
@RepLipinski
Illinois, 3rd District (D)
https://lipinski.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621831801028378624
_________________________________________________
Luis Vicente Gutierrez
@RepGutierrez
Illinois, 4th District (D)
https://gutierrez.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621846924371619840
_________________________________________________
Mike Quigley
@RepMikeQuigley
Illinois, 5th District (D)
https://quigley.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/621867230037430272
_________________________________________________
Peter J. Roskam
@PeterRoskam
Illinois, 6th District (R)
https://roskam.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622169393989058560
_________________________________________________
Danny K. Davis
@RepDannyDavis
Illinois, 7th District (D)
https://davis.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622179685485703168
@DannyKDavis
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622194756689375233
_________________________________________________
Janice Schakowsky
Jan Schakowsky
@RepSchakowsky
Illinois, 9th District (D)
https://schakowsky.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622224422095724544
@JanSchakowsky
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622210364793561088
_________________________________________________
Robert J. Dold
Bob Dold
@RepDold
Illinois, 10th District (R)
https://dold.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622239811462692865
_________________________________________________
Bill Foster
@RepBillFoster
Illinois, 11th District (D)
https://foster.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622406378716549120
_________________________________________________
Mike Bost
@RepBost
Illinois, 12th District (R)
https://bost.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622420744832708608
_________________________________________________
Rodney Davis
@RodneyDavis
Illinois, 13th District (R)
https://rodneydavis.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622435913600249856
_________________________________________________
Randy Hultgren
@RepHultgren
Illinois, 14th District (R)
https://hultgren.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622450950922457088
@RandyHultgren
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622465920049508352
_________________________________________________
John Shimkus
@RepShimkus
Illinois, 15th District (R)
https://shimkus.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622482825292476417
_________________________________________________
Adam Kinzinger
@RepKinzinger
Illinois, 16th District (R)
https://kinzinger.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622495858974658560
_________________________________________________
Cheri Bustos
@RepCheri
Illinois, 17th District (D)
https://bustos.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622512285475586048
@CheriBustos
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/622527120611377152
_________________________________________________
Peter J. Visclosky
Pete Visclosky
@RepVisclosky
Indiana, 1st District (D)
https://visclosky.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/623258490405027840
_________________________________________________
Jackie Walorski
@RepWalorski
Indiana, 2nd District (R)
https://walorski.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/623269881518137344
@JackieWalorski
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/623281425945464832
_________________________________________________
INDIANA
_________________________________________________
Marlin A. Stutzman
@RepStutzman
Indiana, 3rd District (R)
https://stutzman.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/623296703408508929
_________________________________________________
Todd Rokita
@ToddRokita
Indiana, 4th District (R)
https://rokita.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/623311623818711040
_________________________________________________
Susan W. Brooks
@SusanWBrooks
Indiana, 5th District (R)
https://susanwbrooks.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/623326880247246849
_________________________________________________
Luke Messer
@RepLukeMesser
Indiana, 6th District (R)
https://messerhouse.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/623617901451440128
_________________________________________________
André Carson
@RepAndreCarson
Indiana, 7th District (D)
https://carson.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/623632485738487808
_________________________________________________
Larry Bucshon
@RepLarryBucshon
Indiana, 8th District (R)
https://bucshon.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/623644295153762304
@DrLarryBucshon
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/623659068868136960
_________________________________________________
Todd Christopher Young
@RepToddYoung
Indiana, 9th District (R)
https://toddyoung.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/623674304975216640
@ToddYoungIN
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/623981180807970816
_________________________________________________
IOWA
_________________________________________________
David Loebsack
@DaveLoebsack
Iowa, 2nd District (D)
https://loebsack.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/623994943938396160
_________________________________________________
David Young
@RepDavidYoung
Iowa, 3rd District (R)
https://davidyoung.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/624006358191468544
_________________________________________________
Steve King
@SteveKingIA
Iowa, 4th District (R)
https://steveking.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/624027802535378944
_________________________________________________
KANSAS
_________________________________________________
Tim Huelskamp
@CongHuelskamp
Kansas, 1st District (R)
https://huelskamp.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/624345228858761216
_________________________________________________
Lynn Jenkins
@RepLynnJenkins
Kansas, 2nd District (R)
https://lynnjenkins.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/624355172177833985
_________________________________________________
Kevin Yoder
@RepKevinYoder
Kansas, 3rd District (R)
https://yoder.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/624370694260965376
_________________________________________________
Mike Pompeo
@RepMikePompeo
Kansas, 4th District (R)
https://pompeo.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/624388239554703360
_________________________________________________
KENTUCKY
_________________________________________________
Ed Whitfield
@RepEdWhitfield
Kentucky, 1st District (R)
https://whitfield.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/624707954248433664
_________________________________________________
Brett Guthrie
@RepGuthrie
Kentucky, 2nd District (R)
https://guthrie.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/624717032853008384
@BrettGuthrie
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/624776216411832320
_________________________________________________
John Yarmuth
@RepJohnYarmuth
Kentucky, 3rd District (D)
https://yarmuth.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/625012343274086400
_________________________________________________
Harold Hal Rogers
Hal Rogers
@RepHalRogers
Kentucky, 5th District (R)
https://halrogers.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/625034332357423105
_________________________________________________
Garland Andy Barr
Andy Barr
@RepAndyBarr
Kentucky, 6th District (R)
https://barr.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/625044136538808321
_________________________________________________
MAINE
_________________________________________________
Chellie Pingree
@ChelliePingree
Maine, 1st District (D)
https://pingree.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/627493796348096512
_________________________________________________
Bruce Poliquin
@RepPoliquin
Maine, 2nd District (R)
https://poliquin.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/627509025731645440
@BrucePoliquin
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/627518158547591168
_________________________________________________
MARYLAND
_________________________________________________
Andy Harris
@RepAndyHarrisMD
Maryland, 1st District (R)
https://harris.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/627536848794091520
_________________________________________________
C. A. Dutch Ruppersberger
@Call_Me_Dutch
Maryland, 2nd District (D)
https://ruppersberger.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/627547582949105664
_________________________________________________
John Peter Spyros Sarbanes
John P. Sarbanes
@RepJohnSarbanes
Maryland, 3rd District (D)
https://sarbanes.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/627561607237910528
_________________________________________________
Donna F. Edwards
@RepDonnaEdwards
Maryland, 4th District (D)
https://donnaedwards.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/627574396341874688
@DonnaFEdwards
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/627586438838751232
_________________________________________________
Steny H. Hoyer
@WhipHoyer
Maryland, 5th District (D)
https://hoyer.house.gov

https://democraticwhip.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/627604458801885184
@StenyHoyer
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/627618057788239872
_________________________________________________
John K. Delaney
@RepJohnDelaney
Maryland, 6th District (D)
https://delaney.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/627630196158517248
_________________________________________________
Chris Van Hollen, Jr.
@ChrisVanHollen
Maryland, 8th District (D)
https://vanhollen.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/627647942216781824
@VanHollenForMD
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/627659821194547200
_________________________________________________
MASSACHUSETTS
_________________________________________________
Richard E. Neal
@RepRichardNeal
Massachusetts, 1st District (D)
https://neal.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/628330501091233793
_________________________________________________
Jim P. McGovern
James McGovern
@RepMcGovern
Massachusetts, 2nd District (D)
https://mcgovern.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/628339907136737281
_________________________________________________
Niki Tsongas
@NikiInTheHouse
Massachusetts, 3rd District (D)
https://tsongas.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/628355359745421312
@NTsongas
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/628369950235869184
_________________________________________________
Joseph P. Kennedy III
@RepJoeKennedy
Massachusetts, 4th District (D)
https://kennedy.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/628385089521487872
_________________________________________________
Katherine Marlea Clark
@RepKClark
Massachusetts, 5th District (D)
https://katherineclark.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/628400367504596992
@KatherineClark
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/628693940540186624
_________________________________________________
Seth Moulton
@SethMoulton
Massachusetts, 6th District (D)
https://moulton.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/628702330028994560
@TeamMoulton
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/628727600047915013
_________________________________________________
Michael E. Capuano
@MikeCapuano
Massachusetts, 7th District (D)
https://capuano.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/628757174886494208
_________________________________________________
William Keating
@USRepKeating
Massachusetts, 9th District (D)
https://keating.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629055098946252800
@WilliamKeating
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629073346102231040
_________________________________________________
MICHIGAN
_________________________________________________
Dr. Dan Benishek
@CongressmanDan
Michigan, 1st District (R)
https://benishek.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629106318394159104
@Benishek
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629118725132808192
_________________________________________________
Bill Huizenga
@RepHuizenga
Michigan, 2nd District (R)
https://huizenga.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629442900837969920
@BillHuizenga
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629443873463488512
_________________________________________________
John Moolenaar
@RepMoolenaar
Michigan, 4th District (R)
https://moolenaar.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629414537524060160
@JohnMoolenaar
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629456845015416832
_________________________________________________
Daniel Timothy Kildee
@RepDanKildee
Michigan, 5th District (D)
https://dankildee.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629478807469211649
_________________________________________________
Fred Upton
@RepFredUpton
Michigan, 6th District (R)
https://upton.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629782201861861377
_________________________________________________
Mike Bishop
@RepMikeBishop
Michigan, 8th District (R)
https://mikebishop.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629804183332519936
@MikeBishopMI
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629796816708575232
_________________________________________________
Sandy M. Levin
Sander Levin
@RepSandyLevin
Michigan, 9th District (D)
https://levin.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629819352649437184
_________________________________________________
Candice S. Miller
@CandiceMiller
Michigan, 10th District (R)
https://candicemiller.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/629834958606061568
_________________________________________________
David Trott
Dave Trott
@RepDaveTrott
Michigan, 11th District (R)
https://trott.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630016629729021952
_________________________________________________
Deborah Ann Dingell
Debbie Dingell
@RepDebDingell
Michigan, 12th District (D)
https://debbiedingell.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630050758940094464
@DebDingell
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630060898867134464
_________________________________________________
John Conyers, Jr.
@RepJohnConyers
Michigan, 13th District (D)
https://conyers.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630076676773388288
_________________________________________________
MINNESOTA
_________________________________________________
Timothy J. Walz
@RepTimWalz
Minnesota, 1st District (D)
http://walz.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630092969589215232
@Tim_Walz
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630122421736054784
_________________________________________________
John Kline
@RepJohnKline
Minnesota, 2nd District (R)
https://kline.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630137337679376385
_________________________________________________
Erik Paulsen
@RepErikPaulsen
Minnesota, 3rd District (R)
https://paulsen.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630152910979121153
@Erik_Paulsen
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630166754690498560
_________________________________________________
Betty Louise McCollum
@BettyMcCollum04
Minnesota, 4th District (D)
https://mccollum.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630182677031821312
_________________________________________________
Keith Ellison
@KeithEllison
Minnesota, 5th District (D)
https://ellison.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630196212948467713
_________________________________________________
Thomas Earl Emmer, Jr.
Tom Emmer
@RepTomEmmer
Minnesota, 6th District (R)
https://emmer.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630863091761217536
@TomEmmer
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630876458395803649
_________________________________________________
Collin C. Peterson
@CollinPeterson
Minnesota, 7th District (D)
https://collinpeterson.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630891428319731712
_________________________________________________
Rick Nolan
@USRepRickNolan
Minnesota, 8th District (D)
https://nolan.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/630907455585808384
@RickNolanMN
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631228309834219521
_________________________________________________
MISSISSIPPI
_________________________________________________
Trent Kelly
@RepTrentKelly
Mississippi, 1st District (R)
https://trentkelly.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631268884906164224
_________________________________________________
Bennie G. Thompson
@BennieGThompson
Mississippi, 2nd District (D)
https://benniethompson.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631241842986741760
@HomelandDems
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631253999044427776
_________________________________________________
Gregg Harper
@GreggHarper
Mississippi, 3rd District (R)
https://harper.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631284268820467712
_________________________________________________
Steven M. Palazzo
@CongPalazzo
Mississippi, 4th District (R)
https://palazzo.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631593083562520577
@StevenPalazzo
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631606481591402496
_________________________________________________
MISSOURI
_________________________________________________
Ann Wagner
@RepAnnWagner
Missouri, 2nd District (R)
https://wagner.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631621544536633344
_________________________________________________
Blaine Luetkeymeyer
@RepBlainePress
Missouri, 3rd District (R)
https://luetkeymeyer.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631632122239942657
_________________________________________________
Vicky Hartzler
@RepHartzler
Missouri, 4th District (R)
https://hartzler.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631648223518699520
_________________________________________________
Emanuel Cleaver, II
@RepCleaver
Missouri, 5th District (D)
https://cleaver.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631953619156365316
_________________________________________________
Samuel Bruce Graves, Jr.
Sam Graves
@RepSamGraves
Missouri, 6th District (R)
http://graves.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631967085397209089
_________________________________________________
Billy Long
@USRepLong
Missouri, 7th District (R)
https://long.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631980774972096513
_________________________________________________
Jason Thomas Smith
@RepJasonSmith
Missouri, 8th District (R)
https://jasonsmith.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/631993795211563009
_________________________________________________
MONTANA
_________________________________________________
Ryan K. Zinke
@RepRyanZinke
Montana, At-Large District (R)
https://zinke.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/632553874298159104
@RyanZinke
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/632582947258925057
_________________________________________________
NEBRASKA
_________________________________________________
Jeff Fortenberry
@JeffFortenberry
Nebraska, 1st District (R)
https://fortenberry.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/632598138067517441
_________________________________________________
John Bradley Ashford
Brad Ashford
@RepBradAshford
Nebraska, 2nd District (D)
https://ashford.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/632614621246042113
@BradAshford16
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/632634438246113280
_________________________________________________
Adrian Smith
@RepAdrianSmith
Nebraska, 3rd District (R)
https://adriansmith.house.gov
_________________________________________________
https://twitter.com/razor_cabrone/status/632645042180648961
_________________________________________________
NEVADA
_________________________________________________
Dina Titus
@RepDinaTitus
Nevada, 1st District (D)
https://titus.house.gov
_________________________________________________V
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/633403574421192705
_________________________________________________
Mark Amodei
@MarkAmodeiNV2
Nevada, 2nd District (R)
https://amodei.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/633414758864146432
_________________________________________________
Joe Heck
@RepJoeHeck
Nevada, 3rd District (D)
https://heck.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/633429444892475393
_________________________________________________
Cresent Hardy
@RepHardy
Nevada, 4th District (R)
https://hardy.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/633444626368753664
@CresentHardy
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/633459019924041728
_________________________________________________
NEW HAMPSHIRE
_________________________________________________
Frank Christopher Guinta
@RepFrankGuinta
New Hampshire, 1st District (R)
https://guinta.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/633765845924225024
@FrankGuinta
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/633775685178392576
_________________________________________________
Ann McLane Kuster
Annie McLane Kuster
@RepAnnieKuster
New Hampshire, 2nd District (D)
https://kuster.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/633790592183570437
_________________________________________________
NEW JERSEY
_________________________________________________
Donald Norcross
@Donald_Norcross
New Jersey, 1st District (D)
https://norcross.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/633806030334525440
@DonNorcross4NJ
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634130415469625344
_________________________________________________
Frank A. LoBiondo
@RepLoBiondo
New Jersey, 2nd District (R)
https://lobiondo.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634138053825699840
_________________________________________________
Tom MacArthur
@RepTomMacArthur
New Jersey, 3rd District (R)
https://macarthur.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634154177002913792
_________________________________________________
Christopher Henry Smith
@RepChrisSmith
New Jersey, 4th District (R)
https://chrissmith.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634168104369713153
_________________________________________________
Scott Garrett
@RepGarrett
New Jersey, 5th District (R)
https://garrett.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634183912487550976
_________________________________________________
Frank Joseph Pallone Jr.
@FrankPallone
New Jersey, 6th District (D)
https://pallone.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634493758541832192
_________________________________________________
Leonard Lance
@RepLanceNJ7
New Jersey, 7th District (R)
https://lance.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634505770021863424
@LeonardLanceNJ7
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634515612920881152
_________________________________________________
Albio Sires
@RepSires
New Jersey, 8th District (D)
https://sires.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634530704064442368
_________________________________________________
William J. Pascrell Jr.
Bill Pascrell Jr.
@BillPascrell
New Jersey, 9th District (D)
https://pascrell.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634534979582730241
_________________________________________________
Donald Milford Payne Jr.
@RepDonaldPayne
New Jersey, 10th District (D)
https://payne.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634850796866301956
_________________________________________________
Rodney P. Frelinghuysen
@USRepRodney
New Jersey, 11th District (R)
https://frelinghuysen.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634862580624977920
_________________________________________________
NEW MEXICO
_________________________________________________
Stevan Edward Pearce
Steve Pearce
@RepStevePearce
New Mexico, 2nd District (R)
https://pearce.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634878292156379138
_________________________________________________
Ben R. Lujan
@RepBenRayLujan
New Mexico, 3rd District (D)
https://lujan.house.gov
_________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/634893207957020672
@ChairmanDCCC
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/635225521215901696
_________________________________________________
NEW YORK
________________________________________________
Lee M. Zeldin
@RepLeeZeldin
New York, 1st District (R)
https://zeldin.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/635940553339838464
@LeeZeldin
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/635949979685777409
________________________________________________
Peter Thomas King
Pete King
@RepPeteKing
New York, 2nd District (R)
https://peteking.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/635965741582446592
________________________________________________
Steven J. Israel
Steve Israel
@RepSteveIsrael
New York, 3rd District (D)
https://israel.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/635979984759336965
@SteveIsraelNY
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/635997508129456128
@BySteveIsrael
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/636301267497783296
________________________________________________
Kathleen M. Rice
@RepKathleenRice
New York, 4th District (D)
https://kathleenrice.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/636312673379045377
________________________________________________
Gregory W. Meeks
Greg Meeks
@GregoryMeeks
New York, 5th District (D)
https://meeks.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/636327435043241984
________________________________________________
Grace Meng
@RepGraceMeng
New York, 6th District (D)
https://meng.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/636665243641495553
________________________________________________
Nydia M. Velázquez
Nydia M. Velazquez
@NydiaVelazquez
New York, 7th District (D)
https://velazquez.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/636678268364693504
________________________________________________
Hakeem Sekou Jeffries
@RepJeffries
New York, 8th District (D)
https://jeffries.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/636689692616998912
@TeamJeffries
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/636704817424003076
________________________________________________
Yvette D. Clarke
@YvetteClarke
New York, 9th District (D)
https://clarke.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/637026492262780928
________________________________________________
Jerrold Nadler
@RepJerryNadler
New York, 10th District (D)
https://nadler.house.gov

https://jerroldnadler.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/637037068703657984
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Dan M. Donovan, Jr.
Daniel Donovan
@DanDonovan_NY
New York, 11th District (R)
https://donovan.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/637052340445573120
________________________________________________
Charles B. Rangel
@CBRangel
New York, 13th District (D)
https://rangel.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/637067283106562048
________________________________________________
Joseph Crowley
Joe Crowley
@RepJoeCrowley
New York, 14th District (D)
https://crowley.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/637387784337141760
________________________________________________
José Enrique Serrano
Jose E. Serrano
@RepJoseSerrano
New York, 15th District (D)
https://serrano.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/637399565252083712
________________________________________________
Eliot L. Engel
@RepEliotEngel
New York, 16th District (D)
https://engel.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/638475410896982016
________________________________________________
Nita Melnikoff Lowey
@NitaLowey
New York, 17th District (D)
https://lowey.house.gov
________________________________________________
http://twitter.com/2150427982/status/638486699602001920
________________________________________________

THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov (IRS L📍a ®💲 Lie about Supreme Court of the United States opinion delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493, 1916)

IRS I.R.S. Internal Revenue Service Liars
 
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov
(IRS L📍a ®💲 Lie about Supreme Court of the United States opinion delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White in Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company, 240 U.S. 1, 36 S.Ct. 236, 60 L.Ed. 493, 1916)
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov

pg. 18

IRS I.R.S. Internal Revenue Service Liars
2.  Contention:  The “United States” consists only of the District of Columbia, federal territories, and federal enclaves
………………………………………………..
The Law:  The Supreme Court has

“recognized that the sixteenth amendment authorizes a direct nonapportioned tax upon United States citizens throughout the nation, not just in federal enclaves”
——————————————————————
The SUPREME COURT has

“recognized that the

SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT

AUTHORIZES

a

DIRECT NONAPPORTIONED TAX

upon

United States citizens

throughout the nation,

not just in federal enclaves”
_________________________________________________
WHAT THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES ACTUALLY RECOGNIZED
_________________________________________________
U.S. Supreme Court

Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company

Argued October 14 and 15 1915

Decided January 24 1916

240 U.S. 1

36 S.Ct. 236

60 L.Ed. 493

(1916)

Mr. Chief Justice White delivered the opinion of the court:
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 17]

This is the text of the Amendment:

‘The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration

(ratified February 3, 1913)
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 11]

It is an

“ERRONEOUS ASSUMPTION”

“that the

16th AMENDMENT

PROVIDES” “POWER to LEVY”

a

“DIRECT” “INCOME TAX”

“NOT” “SUBJECT

to the

REGULATION

of

APPORTIONMENT

applicable to ALL OTHER

DIRECT TAXES”
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 10]

We are of opinion, however

[240 U.S. 1, 11]

that the confusion is not inherent, but rather arises from the conclusion that the 16th Amendment provides for a hitherto unknown power of taxation; that is, a power to levy an income tax which, although direct, should not be subject to the regulation of apportionment applicable to all other direct taxes

And the far-reaching effect of this erroneous assumption will be made clear by generalizing the many contentions advanced in argument to support it, as follows:
——————————————————————
United States v. Collins

920 F.2d 619

629

10th Cir. 1990

67 A.F.T.R.2d 91-1037

91-2 USTC P 50,554
_________________________________________________
IV.

… For seventy-five years,

THE

SUPREME COURT

has

RECOGNIZED

THAT THE

SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT

AUTHORIZES

a

DIRECT NONAPPORTIONED TAX

upon United States citizens
throughout the nation, not just in federal enclaves, see

Brushaber v. Union Pac. R.R.,

240 U.S. 1,

12-19,

36 S.Ct. 236,

239-42,

60 L.Ed. 493

(1916);

efforts to argue otherwise have been sanctioned as frivolous….
——————————————————————
IV.

To put the argument to rest, we quote the following from a Tenth Circuit opinion in which the court was responding to an identical tax-protester argument.

Article I, section 8 and the sixteenth amendment also empowers Congress to create and provide for the administration of an income tax; the statute under which defendant was charged and convicted, 26 U.S.C. Sec. 7201, plainly falls within that authority

… For seventy-five years, the Supreme Court has recognized that the sixteenth amendment authorizes a direct nonapportioned tax upon United States citizens throughout the nation, not just in federal enclaves, see Brushaber v. Union Pac. R.R., 240 U.S. 1, 12-19, 36 S.Ct. 236, 239-42, 60 L.Ed. 493 (1916); efforts to argue otherwise have been sanctioned as frivolous….
——————————————————————
https://law.resource.org/pub/us/case/reporter/F2/920/920.F2d.619.90-6077.html
_________________________________________________
WHAT THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES ACTUALLY RECOGNIZED
_________________________________________________
U.S. Supreme Court

STANTON v. BALTIC MINING CO,

240 U.S. 103

(1916)

JOHN R. STANTON, Appt.,
v.
BALTIC MINING COMPANY et al.

No. 359

Argued October 14 and 15, 1915

Decided February 21, 1916

[240 U.S. 103, 107]

Mr. Chief Justice White delivered the opinion of the court:
_________________________________________________
As in

Brushaber v. Union P. R. Co.

240 U.S. 1 ,

60 L. ed. –,

36 Sup. Ct. Rep. 236, . . .

[240 U.S. 103, 112]

But, aside from the obvious error of the proposition, intrinsically considered, it manifestly disregards the fact that by the previous ruling it was settled that the provisions of

THE

16th AMENDMENT

conferred no new power of taxation,

but simply

PROHIBITED

THE

previous complete

and

plenary

POWER

OF

INCOME TAXATION

possessed by Congress

from the beginning

FROM BEING TAKEN OUT OF THE

CATEGORY

OF

INDIRECT TAXATION

to which it inherently belonged,

AND being PLACED

[240 U.S. 103, 113]

IN THE

CATEGORY

OF

DIRECT TAXATION

subject to

apportionment

by a consideration of the sources from which the

income

was derived,-that is, by testing the

tax

not by what it was, a

tax

on

income,

but by a mistaken theory deduced from the

origin

or

source

of the

income taxed
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 103, 112]
But, aside from the obvious error of the proposition, intrinsically considered, it manifestly disregards the fact that by the previous ruling it was settled that the provisions of the 16th Amendment conferred no new power of taxation, but simply prohibited the previous complete and plenary power of income taxation possessed by Congress from the beginning from being taken out of the category of indirect taxation to which it inherently belonged, and being placed

[240 U.S. 103, 113]
in the category of direct taxation subject to apportionment by a consideration of the sources from which the income was derived,-that is, by testing the tax not by what it was, a tax on income, but by a mistaken theory deduced from the origin or source of the income taxed
——————————————————————
Stanton v. Baltic Mining Co.,

240 U.S. 103

36 S.Ct. 278

60 L.Ed. 546

(1916)
======================================
http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=240&invol=103
………………………………………………..
https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/240/103/
_________________________________________________
…For seventy-five________|WHAT
years, THE_______________|THE
SUPREME COURT________|SUPREME COURT
has RECOGNIZED________|RECOGNIZED
THAT THE________________|IS THAT THE
SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT|16th AMENDMENT
AUTHORIZES a___________|…PROHIBITED THE
DIRECT___________________|… POWER OF
NONAPPORTIONED TAX_|INCOME TAXATION
upon United States_______|… FROM BEING
citizens throughout______|TAKEN OUT OF
the nation,_______________|THE CATEGORY OF
not just in________________|INDIRECT TAXATION
federal enclaves,_________|…AND being PLACED
see Brushaber v._________|IN THE CATEGORY OF
Union Pac. R.R.,
___________|DIRECT TAXATION
240 U.S. 1,________________|subject to
12-19,_____________________|apportionment
36 S.Ct. 236,______________|…see Stanton v.
239-42,___________________|Baltic Mining Co.,
60 L.Ed. 493______________|240 U.S. 103,
(1916);____________________|112-113
efforts to argue___________|36 S.Ct. 278
otherwise have___________|60 L.Ed. 546
been sanctioned__________|(1916)
as frivolous….
======================================
U.S. Supreme Court

Brushaber v. Union Pac. R.R.

Argued October 14 and 15 1915

Decided January 24 1916

240 U.S. 1

12 – 19

36 S.Ct. 236

239-42

60 L.Ed. 493

(1916)
——————————————————————
http://laws.findlaw.com/us/240/1.html
——————————————————————
http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=240&invol=1
======================================
Case
——————————————————————
https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/240/1/case.html
………………………………………………..
Syllabus
——————————————————————
https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/240/1/
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov

pg. 28

IRS I.R.S. Internal Revenue Service Liars
6.  Contention:  The Sixteenth Amendment does not authorize a direct non-apportioned federal income tax on United States citizens
………………………………………………..
Some individuals and groups assert that the Sixteenth Amendment does not authorize a direct non-apportioned income tax and thus, U.S. citizens and residents are not subject to federal income tax laws
………………………………………………..
The Law:  The constitutionality of the Sixteenth Amendment has invariably been upheld when challenged
………………………………………………..
Numerous courts have both implicitly and explicitly recognized that the Sixteenth Amendment authorized a non-apportioned direct income tax on United States citizens and that the federal tax laws are valid as applied
——————————————————————
Numerous courts

have both

implicitly

and

explicitly

recognized that the

SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT

AUTHORIZED

a

NON-APPORTIONED DIRECT INCOME TAX

on

United States citizens

and that the

federal tax laws

are valid as applied
_________________________________________________
WHAT THE SUPREME COURT ACTUALLY RECOGNIZED
_________________________________________________
U.S. Supreme Court

Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company

Argued October 14 and 15 1915

Decided January 24 1916

240 U.S. 1

36 S.Ct. 236

60 L.Ed. 493

(1916)

Mr. Chief Justice White delivered the opinion of the court:
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 17]

This is the text of the Amendment:

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration

(ratified February 3, 1913)
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 18]

… the contention that the

AMENDMENT

treats a TAX on INCOME

as a

DIRECT TAX

although it is

RELIEVED from APPORTIONMENT

and is necessarily therefore

NOT SUBJECT

to the

RULE of UNIFORMITY

as such RULE

only applies to

TAXES which are NOT DIRECT,

thus destroying the

two great classifications

which have been

recognized

and

enforced

from the beginning,

IS also WHOLLY WITHOUT FOUNDATION
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 18]

From this in substance it indisputably arises, first, that all the contentions which we have previously noticed concerning the assumed limitations to be implied from the language of the Amendment as to the nature and character of the income taxes which it authorizes find no support in the text and are in irreconcilable conflict with the very purpose which the Amendment was adopted to accomplish

Second, that the contention that the Amendment treats a tax on income as a direct tax although it is relieved from apportionment and is necessarily therefore not subject to the rule of uniformity as such rule only applies to taxes which are not direct, thus destroying the two great classifications which have been recognized and enforced from the beginning, is also wholly without foundation since the command of the Amendment that all income taxes shall not be subject to apportionment by a consideration of the sources from which the taxed income may be derived

[240 U.S. 1, 19]

forbids the application to such taxes of the rule applied in the Pollock Case by which alone such taxes were removed from the great class of excises, duties, and imposts subject to the rule of uniformity, and were placed under the other or direct class
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 16]

… THIS CONCLUSION

but

ENFORCED A REGULATION

AS TO THE

MODE

OF

EXERCISING POWER

under particular circumstances,

IT DID NOT

in any way

DISPUTE

THE

ALL-EMBRACING TAXING AUTHORITY

POSSESSED BY CONGRESS,

INCLUDING necessarily therein the

POWER TO IMPOSE INCOME TAXES

IF only THEY CONFORMED

TO the

CONSTITUTIONAL REGULATIONS

which were

APPLICABLE TO THEM
………………………………………………..
… THE CONCLUSION reached

in the Pollock Case

DID NOT

in any degree

INVOLVE HOLDING THAT

INCOME TAXES

generically and necessarily

CAME WITHIN THE CLASS

[240 U.S. 1, 17]

OF

DIRECT TAXES

on property,

BUT,

ON THE CONTRARY,

RECOGNIZED the fact

THAT

TAXATION

ON

INCOME

WAS in its nature

AN

EXCISE

entitled to be enforced as such
………………………………………………..
NOTHING COULD

serve to

MAKE THIS CLEARER

than to recall that in the Pollock Case,

IN SO FAR AS THE LAW TAXED

INCOMES

( 158 U.S. 637 ),

ITS VALIDITY WAS RECOGNIZED;

indeed,

IT WAS expressly

DECLARED that

NO DISPUTE

WAS MADE UPON THAT SUBJECT,

AND

ATTENTION WAS CALLED

TO THE FACT THAT

TAXES

ON such

INCOME

HAD BEEN SUSTAINED AS

EXCISE TAXES

IN THE PAST

Id. p. 635
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 16]

Coming to consider the validity of the tax from this point of view, while not questioning at all that in common understanding it was direct merely on income and only indirect on property, it was held that, considering the substance of things, it was direct on property in a constitutional sense, since to burden an income by a tax was, from the point of substance, to burden the property from which the income was derived, and thus accomplish the very thing which the provision as to apportionment of direct taxes was adopted to prevent

As this conclusion but enforced a regulation as to the mode of exercising power under particular circumstances, it did not in any way dispute the all-embracing taxing authority possessed by Congress, including necessarily therein the power to impose income taxes if only they conformed to the constitutional regulations which were applicable to them

Moreover, in addition, the conclusion reached in the Pollock Case did not in any degree involve holding that income taxes generically and necessarily came within the class

[240 U.S. 1, 17]

of direct taxes on property, but, on the contrary, recognized the fact that taxation on income was in its nature an excise entitled to be enforced as such unless and until it was concluded that to enforce it would amount to accomplishing the result which the requirement as to apportionment of direct taxation was adopted to prevent, in which case the duty would arise to disregard form and consider substance alone, and hence subject the tax to the regulation as to apportionment which otherwise as an excise would not apply to it

Nothing could serve to make this clearer than to recall that in the Pollock Case, in so far as the law taxed incomes from other classes of property than real estate and invested personal property, that is, income from ‘professions, trades, employments, or vocations’

( 158 U.S. 637 ),

its validity was recognized; indeed, it was expressly declared that no dispute was made upon that subject, and attention was called to the fact that taxes on such income had been sustained as excise taxes in the past

Id. p. 635
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 19]

This must be

UNLESS IT CAN BE SAID THAT

although

THE

CONSTITUTION,

AS A RESULT OF THE

AMENDMENT,

in express terms

EXCLUDES THE CRITERION of

source of income,

THAT CRITERION yet REMAINS

FOR THE PURPOSE OF

DESTROYING

THE

CLASSIFICATIONS

OF THE

CONSTITUTION

BY TAKING AN

EXCISE

OUT OF THE

CLASS

TO WHICH IT BELONGS

AND

TRANSFERRING IT

TO A

CLASS

IN WHICH IT

CANNOT BE PLACED

consistently

WITH THE

REQUIREMENTS

OF THE

CONSTITUTION
………………………………………………..
[240 U.S. 1, 19]

Indeed, from another point of view,

THE

AMENDMENT

DEMONSTRATES

that no such purpose was intended,

and on the contrary shows that

IT WAS

DRAWN

WITH THE

OBJECT

OF

MAINTAINING

THE

LIMITATIONS

OF THE

CONSTITUTION

AND

HARMONIZING THEIR OPERATION
………………………………………………..
[240 U.S. 1, 19]

… THE

AMENDMENT

CONTAINS NOTHING

REPUDIATING

OR

CHALLENGING

THE

RULING

in the

Pollock Case

THAT THE WORD

‘DIRECT’

HAD A BROADER SIGNIFICANCE,

since it embraced also taxes levied directly on personal property because of its ownership,

AND THEREFORE THE

AMENDMENT

at least

IMPLIEDLY

MAKES SUCH WIDER SIGNIFICANCE

a PART OF THE

CONSTITUTION,-a condition

WHICH clearly DEMONSTRATES

that

THE PURPOSE

WAS NOT TO CHANGE

THE EXISTING INTERPRETATION

except to the extent necessary to accomplish the result intended; that is, the prevention of the resort to the sources from which a taxed income was derived in order to cause a direct tax on the income to be a direct tax on the source itself,

AND THEREBY to TAKE AN

INCOME TAX

OUT OF THE

CLASS

OF

EXCISES,

DUTIES,

AND

IMPOSTS,

AND PLACE IT IN THE

CLASS

OF

DIRECT TAXES
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 19]

This must be unless it can be said that although the Constitution, as a result of the Amendment, in express terms excludes the criterion of source of income, that criterion yet remains for the purpose of destroying the classifications of the Constitution by taking an excise out of the class to which it belongs and transferring it to a class in which it cannot be placed consistently with the requirements of the Constitution

Indeed, from another point of view, the Amendment demonstrates that no such purpose was intended, and on the contrary shows that it was drawn with the object of maintaining the limitations of the Constitution and harmonizing their operation

We say this because it is to be observed that although from the date of the Hylton Case, because of statements made in the opinions in that case, it had come to be accepted that direct taxes in the constitutional sense were confined to taxes levied directly on real estate because of its ownership, the Amendment contains nothing repudiation or challenging the ruling in the Pollock Case that the word ‘direct’ had a broader significance, since it embraced also taxes levied directly on personal property because of its ownership, and therefore the Amendment at least impliedly makes such wider significance a part of the Constitution,-a condition which clearly demonstrates that the purpose was not to change the existing interpretation except to the extent necessary to accomplish the result intended; that is, the prevention of the resort to the sources from which a taxed income was derived in order to cause a direct tax on the income to be a direct tax on the source itself, and thereby to take an income tax out of the class of excises, duties, and imposts, and place it in the class of direct taxes
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 11]

But it clearly results that the proposition …

[240 U.S. 1, 12]

… of the Amendment exempting a direct tax from apportionment … would cause one provision of the Constitution to destroy another; … they would result in bringing the provisions … into irreconcilable conflict with the general requirement that all direct taxes be apportioned
——————————————————————
ALL DIRECT TAXES BE APPORTIONED
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 11]

But it clearly results that the proposition and the contentions

[240 U.S. 1, 12]

under it, if acceded to, would cause one provision of the Constitution to destroy another; that is, they would result in bringing the provisions of the Amendment exempting a direct tax from apportionment into irreconcilable conflict with the general requirement that all direct taxes be apportioned
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 12]

Moreover, … the result of the Amendment would be to authorize a particular direct tax not subject either to apportionment or to the rule of geographical uniformity, thus giving power to impose a different tax in one state or states than was levied in another state or states
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 12]

Moreover, the tax authorized by the Amendment, being direct, would not come under the rule of uniformity applicable under the Constitution to other than direct taxes, and thus it would come to pass that the result of the Amendment would be to authorize a particular direct tax not subject either to apportionment or to the rule of geographical uniformity, thus giving power to impose a different tax in one state or states than was levied in another state or states
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 12]

This result, instead of simplifying … and making clear the limitations on the taxing power, which obviously the Amendment must have been intended to accomplish, would create radical and destructive changes in our constitutional system …
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 12]

This result, instead of simplifying the situation and making clear the limitations on the taxing power, which obviously the Amendment must have been intended to accomplish, would create radical and destructive changes in our constitutional system and multiply confusion
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 12]

8 of article 1

‘to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises’
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 12]

That the authority conferred upon Congress by

8 of article 1

‘to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises’

is exhaustive and embraces every conceivable power of taxation has never been questioned, or, if it has, has been so often authoritatively declared as to render it necessary only to state the doctrine
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 13]

lay and collect income taxes
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 12]

And it has also never

[240 U.S. 1, 13]

been questioned from the foundation, without stopping presently to determine under which of the separate headings the power was properly to be classed, that there was authority given, as the part was included in the whole, to lay and collect income taxes
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 13]

art. 1, 8, cl. 1,

‘all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States,’
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 13]

Again, it has never moreover been questioned that the conceded complete and all-embracing taxing power was subject, so far as they were respectively applicable, to limitations resulting from the requirements of

art. 1, 8, cl. 1,

that

‘all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States,’
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 13]

art I., 2, cl. 3,

‘direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states,’
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 13]

and to the limitations of

art I., 2, cl. 3,

that

‘direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states,’
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 13]

art 1, 9, cl. 4,

‘no capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken’
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 13]

and of

art 1, 9, cl. 4,

that

‘no capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken’
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 13]

… the

TWO GREAT SUBDIVISIONS

EMBRACING the

COMPLETE

and

PERFECT

DELEGATION of the POWER to TAX

and the

TWO CORRELATED LIMITATIONS

as to such POWER …

‘IN the MATTER of TAXATION,

the

CONSTITUTION

recognizes the

TWO GREAT CLASSES

of

DIRECT

and

INDIRECT TAXES,

and lays down

TWO RULES

by which their IMPOSITION

MUST be GOVERNED, namely:

The

RULE of APPORTIONMENT

as to

DIRECT TAXES,

and the

RULE of UNIFORMITY

as to

DUTIES,

IMPOSTS,

and

EXCISES’
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 13]

In fact, the two great subdivisions embracing the complete and perfect delegation of the power to tax and the two correlated limitations as to such power were thus aptly stated by Mr. Chief Justice Fuller in

Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan & T. Co.

157 U. S. supra, at page 557:

‘In the matter of taxation, the Constitution recognizes the two great classes of direct and indirect taxes, and lays down two rules by which their imposition must be governed, namely: The rule of apportionment as to direct taxes, and the rule of uniformity as to duties, imposts, and excises’
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 13]

… the REQUIREMENTS of

APPORTIONMENT as to one of the great classes

and of

UNIFORMITY as to the other class

were not so much a LIMITATION upon the

COMPLETE

and

ALL-EMBRACING

AUTHORITY to TAX,

but in their essence were simply

REGULATIONS

concerning the MODE

in which the

PLENARY POWER was to be exerted

In the WHOLE HISTORY of the GOVERNMENT

down to the time of the adoption of the

16th AMENDMENT,

[240 U.S. 1, 14]

… NO QUESTION

HAS BEEN ANYWHERE MADE

AS TO THE

CORRECTNESS OF THESE PROPOSITIONS
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 13]

It is to be observed, however, as long ago pointed out in

Veazie Bank v. Fenno,

8 Wall. 533, 541,

19 L. ed. 482, 485,

that the requirements of apportionment as to one of the great classes and of uniformity as to the other class were not so much a limitation upon the complete and all-embracing authority to tax, but in their essence were simply regulations concerning the mode in which the plenary power was to be exerted

In the whole history of the government down to the time of the adoption of the 16th Amendment, leaving aside some conjectures expressed of the possibility of a tax lying intermediate between the two great classes and embraced

[240 U.S. 1, 14]

by neither, no question has been anywhere made as to the correctness of these propositions
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 17]

This is the text of the Amendment:

‘The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any censusor enumeration’
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 17]

It is clear on the face of this text that it does not purport to confer power to levy income taxes in a generic sense,-an authority already possessed and never questioned,

[240 U.S. 1, 18]

-or to limit and distinguish between one kind of income taxes and another, but that the whole purpose of the Amendment was to relieve all income taxes when imposed from apportionment from a consideration of the source whence the income was derived
_________________________________________________
Congressional Record – House March 27, 1943. pg 2580

“So the amendment

(16th)

made it possible to bring investment income within the scope of the general income-tax law, but did not change the character of the tax

It is still fundamentally an excise or duty with respect to the privilege of carrying on any activity or owning any property which produces income

The income tax is, therefore, not a tax on income as such

It is an excise tax with respect to certain activities and privileges which is measured by reference to the income they produce

The income is not the subject of the tax:

it is the basis for determining the amount of tax”
Congressional Record 1943Congressional Record 1943imageCongressional Record 1943
report by The Congressional Research Service

Report No. 84-168A, 784 / 725

Report No. 84-168 A 784/275

titled

“Some Constitutional Questions Regarding the Federal Income Tax Laws”

dated May 25, 1979

updated Sept. 26, 1984

Updated September 26, 1984

HJ 4625 U.S.A.

American Law Division

by Howard Zaritsky ; updated by John R. Luckey

Published 1984 by Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress in [Washington, D.C.]

“The Supreme Court, in a decision written by Chief Justice White, first noted that the Sixteenth Amendment did not authorize any new type of tax, nor did it repeal or revoke the tax clauses of Article I of the Constitution, quoted above

Direct taxes were, notwithstanding the advent of the Sixteenth Amendment, still subject to the rule of apportionment and indirect taxes were still the subject of the rule of uniformity

Rather, the Court found that the Sixteenth Amendment sought to restrain the Court from viewing an income tax as a direct tax because of its close effect on the underlying property”

(pg 5)
——————————————————————

——————————————————————
http://www.lib.miamioh.edu/multifacet/record/mu3ugb3100641
_________________________________
________
………………………………………………..
Relevant Case Law:
——————————————————————
United States v. Collins

920 F.2d 619

629

10th Cir. 1990

67 A.F.T.R.2d 91-1037

91-2 USTC P 50,554

UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellee
v.
Roy W. COLLINS, Defendant-Appellant

No. 90-6077

United States Court of Appeals

Tenth Circuit

Nov. 27, 1990

SEYMOUR

BALDOCK

BRORBY

Circuit Judges

BALDOCK, Circuit Judge

1. Jurisdiction

Article I, section 8 and the sixteenth amendment also empowers Congress to create and provide for the administration of an income tax; the statute under which defendant was charged and convicted, 26 U.S.C. Sec. 7201, plainly falls within that authority

Dickstein’s argument that the sixteenth amendment does not authorize a direct, non-apportioned tax on United States citizens similarly is devoid of any arguable basis in law

Indeed, the Ninth Circuit recently noted

“the patent absurdity and frivolity of such a proposition”

In re Becraft,

885 F.2d 547, 548

(9th Cir.1989)

For seventy-five years, the Supreme Court has recognized that the sixteenth amendment authorizes a direct nonapportioned tax upon United States citizens throughout the nation, not just in federal enclaves,

see

Brushaber v. Union Pac. R.R.,

240 U.S. 1, 12-19,

36 S.Ct. 236, 239-42,

60 L.Ed. 493

(1916);

efforts to argue otherwise have been sanctioned as frivolous,

see, e.g.,

Becraft,

885 F.2d at 549

(Fed.R.App.P. 38 sanctions for raising frivolous sixteenth amendment argument in petition for rehearing);

Lovell v. United States,

755 F.2d 517, 519-20

(7th Cir.1984)

(Fed.R.App.P. 38 sanctions imposed on pro se litigants raising frivolous sixteenth amendment contentions)
——————————————————————
https://law.resource.org/pub/us/case/reporter/F2/920/920.F2d.619.90-6077.html
======================================
Sept. 6 1989

Becraft

In re Lowell H. BECRAFT, Jr.
UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff/Appellee,
v.
Kenneth W. NELSON, Defendant/Appellant

885 F.2d 547

548 – 549

885 F.2d at 549

64 A.F.T.R.2d 89-5656

15 Fed.R.Serv.3d 183

9th Cir. 1989

No. 88-1113

United States Court of Appeals

Ninth Circuit

9th Circuit

Sept. 6, 1989

Ninth Circuit Judge
9th Circuit Judge
FERGUSON
NORRIS
WIGGINS
Circuit Judges

ORDER

Notwithstanding Becraft’s insistence that his argument regarding the inapplicability of the federal income tax laws to resident United States citizens raises numerous complex issues, his position can fairly be reduced to one elemental proposition:

The Sixteenth Amendment does not authorize a direct non-apportioned income tax on resident United States citizens and thus such citizens are not subject to the federal income tax laws.2

We hardly need comment on the patent absurdity and frivolity of such a proposition

For over 75 years, the Supreme Court and the lower federal courts have both implicitly and explicitly recognized the Sixteenth Amendment’s authorization of a non-apportioned direct income tax on United States citizens residing in the United States and thus the validity of the federal income tax laws as applied to such citizens

See, e.g.,

Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Co.,

240 U.S. 1,

12-19,

36 S.Ct. 236,

239-42,

60 L.Ed. 493

(1916);

Ward,

833 F.2d at 1539;

Lovell v. United States,

755 F.2d 517,

519

(7th Cir.1984);

Parker v. Commissioner,

724 F.2d 469,

471

(5th Cir.1984);

United States v. Romero,

640 F.2d 1014,

1016

(9th Cir.1981)

Indeed, in Lovell, one of the more recent cases explicitly rejecting a Sixteenth Amendment argument virtually identical to Becraft’s position in this case, the court sanctioned the pro se appellants for raising this and other federal tax exemption claims on appeal

See Lovell, 755 F.2d at 520

If a claim is sufficiently frivolous to warrant sanctions against a pro se appellant, it unarguably supports the assessment of sanctions against a seasoned attorney with considerable experience in the federal courts

While Becraft devotes a good portion of his brief, petition for rehearing, and reply to a discussion of the structure of the Internal Revenue Service and the control numbers designated to income tax forms pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act, he does so only to provide support for his fundamental proposition that the Sixteenth Amendment does not authorize a direct non-apportioned tax on citizens residing in the United States

Hence, his entire legal argument hinges on the constitutionality of directly taxing resident United States citizens
——————————————————————
https://law.resource.org/pub/us/case/reporter/F2/885/885.F2d.547.88-1113.html
======================================
Dec. 18 1984

Michael W. LOVELL

Phyllis D. Lovell

United States

Lovell v. United States

Michael W. LOVELL and Phyllis D. Lovell, Plaintiffs-Appellants,
v.
UNITED STATES of America, Defendant-Appellee

755 F.2d 517

518 – 520

755 F.2d 517,

519-20

755 F.2d at 520

7th Cir. 1984

55 A.F.T.R.2d 85-917

85-1 USTC P 9208

No. 84-1547

United States Court of Appeals

Seventh Circuit

7th Circuit

Submitted Nov. 28, 1984.*
Decided Dec. 18, 1984.**

Seventh Circuit Judge
7th Circuit Judge
CUMMINGS, Chief Judge

CUDAHY

FLAUM

Circuit Judges

PER CURIAM

II.

And there is absolutely no doubt that the legal contentions advanced by the plaintiffs are frivolous; indeed, plaintiffs’ arguments are patently absurd

Plaintiffs also contend that the Constitution prohibits imposition of a direct tax without apportionment

They are wrong; it does not

U.S. Const. amend. XVI;

Parker v. Commissioner,

724 F.2d 469,

471

(5th Cir.1984)
——————————————————————
https://law.resource.org/pub/us/case/reporter/F2/755/755.F2d.517.84-1547.html
======================================
Feb. 6, 1984

Alton M. Parker, Sr.

Commissioner

Alton M. PARKER, Sr., Petitioner-Appellant,
v.
COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, Respondent-Appellee

724 F.2d 469,

471

(5th Cir.1984)

84-1 USTC P 9209

No. 83-4300

Summary Calendar

United States Court of Appeals

Fifth Circuit
5th Circuit

Feb. 6, 1984

Appeal from the Decision of the United States Tax Court

Fifth Circuit Judge
5th Circuit Judge
GEE

POLITZ

JOHNSON

Circuit Judges

POLITZ, Circuit Judge

Parker maintains that

“the IRS and the government in general, including the judiciary, mistakenly interpret the sixteenth amendment as allowing a direct tax on property (wages, salaries, commissions, etc.) without apportionment”

As we observed in

Lonsdale v. CIR,

661 F.2d 71

(5th Cir.1981),

the sixteenth amendment was enacted for the express purpose of providing for a direct income tax

The thirty words of this amendment are explicit:

“The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on income, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration”

The Supreme Court promptly determined in

Brushaber v. Union Pacific Ry. Co.,

240 U.S. 1,

36 S.Ct. 236,

60 L.Ed. 493

(1916),

that the sixteenth amendment provided the needed constitutional basis for the imposition of a direct non-apportioned income tax

Appellant cites

Brushaber

and

Stanton v. Baltic Mining Co.,

240 U.S. 103,

36 S.Ct. 278,

60 L.Ed. 546

(1916),

for the proposition that the sixteenth amendment does not give Congress the power to levy an income tax

This proposition is only partially correct, and in its critical aspect, is incorrect

In its early consideration of the sixteenth amendment the Court recognized that the amendment does not bestow the taxing power

The bestowal of such authority is not necessary, for as the Court pointedly noted in Brushaber:

The authority conferred upon Congress by

Sec. 8 of article 1

“to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises”

is exhaustive and embraces every conceivable power of taxation has never been questioned, or, if it has, has been so often authoritatively declared as to render it necessary only to state the doctrine

And it has also never been questioned from the foundation … that there was authority given … to lay and collect income taxes

240 U.S. at 12-13,

36 S.Ct. at 239-240

The sixteenth amendment merely eliminates the requirement that the direct income tax be apportioned among the states

The immediate recognition of the validity of the sixteenth amendment continues in an unbroken line

See e.g.

United States v. McCarty,

665 F.2d 596

(5 Cir.1982);

Lonsdale v. CIR

Appellant cites

Flint v. Stone Tracy Co.,

220 U.S. 107,

31 S.Ct. 342,

55 L.Ed. 389

(1911),

in support of his contention that the income tax is an excise tax applicable only against special privileges, such as the privilege of conducting a business, and is not assessable against income in general

Appellant twice errs

Flint did not address personal income tax; it was concerned with corporate taxation

Furthermore, Flint is pre-sixteenth amendment and must be read in that light

At this late date, it seems incredible that we would again be required to hold that the Constitution, as amended, empowers the Congress to levy an income tax against any source of income, without the need to apportion the tax equally among the states, or to classify it as an excise tax applicable to specific categories of activities
——————————————————————
https://law.resource.org/pub/us/case/reporter/F2/724/724.F2d.469.83-4300.html
_________________________________________________
Jan. 11, 1982

United States v. McCarty

UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellee,
v.
James W. McCARTY, Defendant-Appellant
665 F.2d 596

82-1 USTC P 9150

(5 Cir.1982)

5th Circuit

Fifth Circuit

Nos. 80-2231, 81-1021

Summary Calendar

United States Court of Appeals

Fifth Circuit
Jan. 11, 1982

James W. McCarty, pro se

Appeals from the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas

5th Circuit Judge

Fifth Circuit Judge

GEE

GARZA

TATE

Circuit Judges

PER CURIAM

The Criminal Conviction Itself

In his appeal from the conviction itself, the defendant complains of inadequate instructions and also that he was not subject to any federal income tax since the Sixteenth Amendment did not really change the former constitutional requirement that direct taxation be apportioned according to population

This latter argument is made in the face of the express language of the Amendment,1 its undoubted express intention, and an unbroken line of jurisprudence to the contrary

See, e. g.,

Lonsdale v. C.I.R.,

661 F.2d 71,

72

(5th Cir. 1981)

The Sixteenth Amendment provides that:

“The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration”
——————————————————————
https://law.resource.org/pub/us/case/reporter/F2/665/665.F2d.596.80-2231.81-1021.html
………………………………………………..
http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F2/665/596/408342/
_________________________________________________
image
United States Federal Circuit Judge Bobby Ray BALDOCK, Circuit Judge Mary Beck BRISCOE, and District Judge John Watson LUNGSTRUM, in the United States Court of Appeals, for the Tenth Circuit in Denver, Colorado, Disrespect the Unanimous Supreme Court of the United States (@SCOTUS) and the Congress of the United States of America (@USCongress)
_________________________________________________
Oct. 28 1996

John Cox, Petitioner-appellant, v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Respondent-appellee

U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit – 99 F.3d 1149 (10th Cir. 1996)

99 F.3d 1149

78 A.F.T.R.2d 96-7015

96-2 USTC P 50,598

No. 95-9025

United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit

Oct. 28, 1996

BALDOCK

BRISCOE

Circuit Judges

LUNGSTRUM,** District Judge

Honorable John W. Lungstrum, District Judge, United States District Court for the District of Kansas, sitting by designation

Petitioner John Cox appeals from an order of the United States Tax Court

For eighty years,

THE

SUPREME COURT

has

RECOGNIZED
that

THE

SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT

AUTHORIZES

A

DIRECT NONAPPORTIONED TAX

upon United States citizens

throughout the nation,

not just in federal enclaves

See

Brushaber v. Union Pac. R.R.

240 U.S. 1

12-19

(1916)
………………………………………………..
* If the court is only able to cite page numbers (12-19) because nothing in the unanimous Supreme Court of the United States opinion delivered by Mr. Chief Justice White supports its ORDER, maybe the court should go back to law school
——————————————————————
For eighty years, the Supreme Court has recognized that the Sixteenth Amendment authorizes a direct nonapportioned tax upon United States citizens throughout the nation, not just in federal enclaves. See Brushaber v. Union Pac. R.R., 240 U.S. 1, 12-19 (1916)
_________________________________________________
http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F3/99/1149/639528/
——————————————————————
https://law.resource.org/pub/us/case/reporter/F3/099/99.F3d.1149.95-9025.html
======================================
FACT: The Unanimous SUPREME COURT of the UNITED STATES recognized that:

[240 U.S. 1, 11]

It is an “ERRONEOUS ASSUMPTION” “that the 16th AMENDMENT PROVIDES” “POWER to LEVY” a “DIRECT” “INCOME TAX” “NOT” “SUBJECT to the REGULATION of APPORTIONMENT applicable to ALL OTHER DIRECT TAXES”
_________________________________________________
U.S. Supreme Court

Brushaber v. Union Pacific Rail Road Company

Argued October 14 and 15 1915

Decided January 24 1916

240 U.S. 1

36 S.Ct. 236

60 L.Ed. 493

(1916)

Mr. Chief Justice White delivered the opinion of the court:
_________________________________________________
What the UNANIMOUS SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES ACTUALLY RECOGNIZED
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 11]

It is an

“ERRONEOUS ASSUMPTION”

“that the

16th AMENDMENT

PROVIDES” “POWER to LEVY”

a

“DIRECT” “INCOME TAX”

“NOT” “SUBJECT

to the

REGULATION

of

APPORTIONMENT

applicable to

ALL OTHER

DIRECT TAXES”
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 11]

We are of opinion however that the confusion is not inherent but rather arises from the conclusion that the 16th Amendment provides for a hitherto unknown power of taxation that is a power to levy an income tax which although direct should not be subject to the regulation of apportionment applicable to all other direct taxes

And the far-reaching effect of this erroneous assumption will be made clear by generalizing the many contentions advanced in argument to support it as follows:
_________________________________________________
U.S. Supreme Court

Brushaber v. Union Pac. R.R.

Argued October 14 and 15 1915

Decided January 24 1916

240 U.S. 1

36 S.Ct. 236

60 L.Ed. 493

(1916)
——————————————————————
http://laws.findlaw.com/us/240/1.html
——————————————————————
http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=240&invol=1
——————————————————————
Case
——————————————————————
https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/240/1/case.html
………………………………………………..
Syllabus
——————————————————————
https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/240/1/
======================================
U.S. Supreme Court

STANTON v. BALTIC MINING CO,

JOHN R. STANTON, Appt.,
v.
BALTIC MINING COMPANY et al.

Argued October 14 and 15, 1915

Decided February 21, 1916

240 U.S. 103

36 S.Ct. 278

60 L.Ed. 546

No. 359

(1916)

Mr. Chief Justice White delivered the opinion of the court:
_________________________________________________
What the UNANIMOUS SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES ACTUALLY RECOGNIZED
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 103, 107]

As in

Brushaber v. Union P. R. Co.

240 U.S. 1 ,

60 L. ed. –,

36 Sup. Ct. Rep. 236, . . .
………………………………………………..
[240 U.S. 103, 112]

But, aside from the obvious error of the proposition, intrinsically considered, it manifestly disregards the fact that by the previous ruling it was settled that the provisions of

THE

16th AMENDMENT

conferred no new power of taxation,

but simply

PROHIBITED

THE

previous complete

and

plenary

POWER

OF

INCOME TAXATION

possessed by Congress

from the beginning

FROM BEING TAKEN OUT OF THE

CATEGORY

OF

INDIRECT TAXATION

to which it inherently belonged,

AND being PLACED

[240 U.S. 103, 113]

IN THE

CATEGORY

OF

DIRECT TAXATION

subject to

apportionment

by a consideration of the sources from which the

income

was derived,-that is, by testing the

tax

not by what it was, a

tax

on

income,

but by a mistaken theory deduced from the

origin

or

source

of the

income taxed
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 103, 112]

But, aside from the obvious error of the proposition, intrinsically considered, it manifestly disregards the fact that by the previous ruling it was settled that the provisions of the 16th Amendment conferred no new power of taxation, but simply prohibited the previous complete and plenary power of income taxation possessed by Congress from the beginning from being taken out of the category of indirect taxation to which it inherently belonged, and being placed

[240 U.S. 103, 113]

in the category of direct taxation subject to apportionment by a consideration of the sources from which the income was derived,-that is, by testing the tax not by what it was, a tax on income, but by a mistaken theory deduced from the origin or source of the income taxed
——————————————————————
Stanton v. Baltic Mining Co.,

240 U.S. 103

36 S.Ct. 278

60 L.Ed. 546

No. 359

(1916)
——————————————————————
http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=240&invol=103
——————————————————————
https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/240/103/
======================================
http://www.irs.gov/uac/Newsroom/IRS-Debunks-Frivolous-Tax-Arguments-2014
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov
Introduction
——————————————————————
http://www.irs.gov/Tax-Professionals/The-Truth-About-Frivolous-Tax-Arguments-Introduction
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov
Section I (A to C)
——————————————————————
http://www.irs.gov/Tax-Professionals/The-Truth-About-Frivolous-Tax-Arguments-Section-I-A-to-C
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov
Section I (D to E)
——————————————————————
http://www.irs.gov/Tax-Professionals/The-Truth-About-Frivolous-Tax-Arguments-Section-I-D-to-E
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov
Section II
——————————————————————
http://www.irs.gov/Tax-Professionals/The-Truth-About-Frivolous-Tax-Arguments-Section-II
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov
Section III
——————————————————————
http://www.irs.gov/Tax-Professionals/The-Truth-About-Frivolous-Tax-Arguments-Section-III
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov
Section IV
——————————————————————
http://www.irs.gov/Businesses/Small-Businesses-&-Self-Employed/Anti-Tax-Law-Evasion-Schemes-Law-and-Arguments-Section-IV
_________________________________________________
THE TRUTH ABOUT FRIVOLOUS TAX ARGUMENTS – IRS.gov
_________________________________________________
http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-utl/friv_tax.pdf
_________________________________________________
Brief History of IRS
——————————————————————
http://www.irs.gov/uac/Brief-History-of-IRS
_________________________________________________
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) lawsuit (Case l:12-cv-02635-MJG) Filed 09/04/12 in the UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF MARYLAND by Michael C. Worsham re U.S. Department of the Treasury (“Treasury”) / Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”)
——————————————————————
https://archive.org/stream/423227-md-1-2012cv02635-complaint/423227-md-1-2012cv02635-complaint_djvu.txt
_________________________________________________
United States Constitution

First Amendment

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press;

or

THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE

peaceably to assemble,

and

TO PETITION THE GOVERNMENT

FOR A REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES
——————————————————————
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html
………………………………………………..
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights.html
_________________________________________________
Go Fund Me

#GoFundMe

gofundme.com/upsdgw
_________________________________________________

$10 Million Challenge ! ! ! ! ! – Financial & Tax Fraud Education Associates, Inc., the publishers of Quatloos.com, will pay the sum of $10 million in cash to the first person who can prove to the satisfaction of any U.S. Court of Appeals or the U.S. Supreme Court that there is no law that makes the average American liable to pay the income tax

$10 Million Challenge ! ! ! ! ! – Financial & Tax Fraud Education Associates, Inc., the publishers of Quatloos.com, will pay the sum of $10 million in cash to the first person who can prove to the satisfaction of any U.S. Court of Appeals or the U.S. Supreme Court that there is no law that makes the average American liable to pay the income tax
_________________________________
________
$10 Million Challenge ! ! ! ! !

Financial & Tax Fraud Education Associates, Inc., the publishers of Quatloos.com, will pay the sum of $10 million in cash to the first person who can prove to the satisfaction of any U.S. Court of Appeals or the U.S. Supreme Court that there is no law that makes the average American liable to pay the income tax

Don’t just tell us about your pet theory — nobody cares — get out and win a case or shut up!

Number of takers so far: 0
_________________________________
________
http://www.quatloos.com/hereisthelaw.htm
_________________________________
________
Why would anyone need to prove what has already been proven at the District Court level in 1993
_________________________________
________
Case Number CR-1-03-91

U.S. v. Lloyd Long

United States District Court

Eastern District of Tennessee

October 15 1993

Nationally prominent attorney

Lowell Beacraft

(of Huntsville Alabama)

assisted by attorney

Russell J. Leonard

(of Sewanee Tennessee)

defended

Lloyd R. Long

(of Decherd Tennessee)
_________________________________
________
Trial Transcript 1
——————————————————————
http://home.hiwaay.net/~becraft/LongLloyd1.htm
======================================
Trial Transcript 2
——————————————————————
http://home.hiwaay.net/~becraft/LloydLong2.htm
======================================
Trial Transcript 3
——————————————————————
http://home.hiwaay.net/~becraft/LloydLong3.htm
======================================
Trial Transcript 4
——————————————————————
http://home.hiwaay.net/~becraft/LloydLong4.htm
======================================
Trial Transcript 5
——————————————————————
http://home.hiwaay.net/~becraft/LloydLong5.htm
======================================
Trial Transcript 6
——————————————————————
http://home.hiwaay.net/~becraft/LloydLong6.htm
======================================
Trial Transcript 7
——————————————————————
http://home.hiwaay.net/~becraft/LloydLong7.htm
======================================
Lowell H. Larry” Becraft, Jr.
——————————————————————
http://freedom-school.com/tax-matters/becraft-landmark-tax-case.html
_________________________________
________
THE TAX PROTESTER FAQ

Created by Daniel B. Evans
………………………………………………..
Paranoid (and Other) Delusions

Certain arguments of tax protesters transcend legal or logical fallacies, and can only be described as neurotic or psychotic delusions
………………………………………………..
Daniel B. Evans must B Dan B Denier
………………………………………………..
There are lots of tax protesters who have won cases against the IRS, such as … Lloyd Long …

No. There are a handful of people who have avoided criminal (but not civil) penalties by convincing a jury that they were too stupid or delusional to understand the tax laws and their violations were not “willful,” but no one has ever won against the IRS in a tax collection case using one of the frivolous arguments described in this FAQ

Some of the more notorious losers are described below
………………………………………………..
Dan might just be one of thosespecialpeople who are great at throwing Gubment cheese at others, but don’t expect him to agree to an open debate in front of a live audience
………………………………………………..
(This section of the FAQ will not be updated after 7/19/2007

Instead, a Tax Protester Dossiers wiki has been established to provide information about tax protester gurus, promoters, icons, martyrs, enablers, and other “big fish.”)
………………………………………………..
Tax Protester Dossiers
Gurus and Other Big Fish

Lloyd R. Long

Background

Not known

Theories Advocated/Promoted

Long’s defense in his criminal prosecution for failing to file tax returns was that his failure to file was not “willful” because he had studied the tax code and could not find any statute making him liable for the income tax

Court Actions

Mr. Long was prosecuted for criminal failure to file and was acquitted by a jury, which apparently had a reasonable doubt about whether he had “willfully” failed to file

United States v. Lloyd R. Long

No. CR-1-93-91

(U.S.D.C. E.D. Tenn. 10/15/1993)

Students/Disciples/Associates

Long was defended by Larry Becraft

page revision: 0, last edited: 4 Jul 2007, 13:47 (2863 days ago)
——————————————————————
http://tpgurus.wikidot.com/lloyd-long
——————————————————————
There are lots of tax protesters who have won cases against the IRS, such as .. Lloyd Long …

Lloyd Long

The Lloyd Long case is one of the great “victories” of tax protesters, meaning that it is absolutely meaningless

Mr. Long was prosecuted for criminal failure to file and was acquitted by a jury, which apparently had a reasonable doubt about whether he had “willfully” failed to file
——————————————————————
http://www.evans-legal.com/dan/tpfaq.html
——————————————————————
http://www.quatloos.com/taxscams/cm-taxpr.htm
___________________________________
This article will be revised / updated with more information as time allows
Sixteenth Amendment 16th Amendment
1913 – 16th amendment was ratified February 3, 1913
_________________________________________________
‘The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration
——————————————————————
History
======================================
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=57
………………………………………………..
Transcript
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http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=57&page=transcript
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http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_amendments_11-27.html
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https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxvi
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http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Sixteenth+Amendment
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http://www.usconstitution.net/xconst_Am16.html
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http://constitutioncenter.org/constitution/the-amendments/amendment-16-status-of-income-tax-clarified
Form 1040
1916 – Brushaber case was decided January 24, 1916

U.S. Supreme Court

Brushaber v. Union Pacific R. Co.

BRUSHABER v. UNION PACIFIC R. CO.

Brushaber v. Union Pacific R.R. Co.

Brushaber vs Union Pacific R.R. Co

BRUSHABER V. UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD

Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Co.

Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Company

FRANK R. BRUSHABER, Appt.,
v.
UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD COMPANY

Argued October 14, 15, 1915

Argued October 14 and 15, 1915

Decided January 24, 1916

No. 140

240 U.S. 1

36 S.Ct. 236

60 L.Ed. 493

(1916)
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[240 U.S. 1, 10]

We are of opinion, however

[240 U.S. 1, 11]

that the confusion is not inherent, but rather arises from the conclusion that the 16th Amendment provides for a hitherto unknown power of taxation; that is, a power to levy an income tax which, although direct, should not be subject to the regulation of apportionment applicable to all other direct taxes

And the far-reaching effect of this erroneous assumption will be made clear by generalizing the many contentions advanced in argument to support it, as follows:
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It is an erroneous assumption that the 16th Amendment provides power to levy a direct income tax not subject to the regulation of apportionment applicable to all other direct taxes
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[240 U.S. 1, 11]

But it clearly results that the proposition and the contentions

[240 U.S. 1, 12]

under it, if acceded to, would cause one provision of the Constitution to destroy another; that is, they would result in bringing the provisions of the Amendment exempting a direct tax from apportionment into irreconcilable conflict with the general requirement that all direct taxes be apportioned
——————————————————————
[240 U.S. 1, 11]

But it clearly results that the proposition …

[240 U.S. 1, 12]

… of the Amendment exempting a direct tax from apportionment … would cause one provision of the Constitution to destroy another; … they would result in bringing the provisions … into irreconcilable conflict with the general requirement that all direct taxes be apportioned
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ALL DIRECT TAXES BE APPORTIONED
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[240 U.S. 1, 12]

Moreover, the tax authorized by the Amendment, being direct, would not come under the rule of uniformity applicable under the Constitution to other than direct taxes, and thus it would come to pass that the result of the Amendment would be to authorize a particular direct tax not subject either to apportionment or to the rule of geographical uniformity, thus giving power to impose a different tax in one state or states than was levied in another state or states
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[240 U.S. 1, 12]

Moreover, … the result of the Amendment would be to authorize a particular direct tax not subject either to apportionment or to the rule of geographical uniformity, thus giving power to impose a different tax in one state or states than was levied in another state or states
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[240 U.S. 1, 12]

This result, instead of simplifying the situation and making clear the limitations on the taxing power, which obviously the Amendment must have been intended to accomplish, would create radical and destructive changes in our constitutional system and multiply confusion
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[240 U.S. 1, 12]

This result, instead of simplifying … and making clear the limitations on the taxing power, which obviously the Amendment must have been intended to accomplish, would create radical and destructive changes in our constitutional system …
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[240 U.S. 1, 12]

That the authority conferred upon Congress by

8 of article 1

‘to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises’

is exhaustive and embraces every conceivable power of taxation has never been questioned, or, if it has, has been so often authoritatively declared as to render it necessary only to state the doctrine
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[240 U.S. 1, 12]

8 of article 1

to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises’
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[240 U.S. 1, 12]

And it has also never

[240 U.S. 1, 13]

been questioned from the foundation, without stopping presently to determine under which of the separate headings the power was properly to be classed, that there was authority given, as the part was included in the whole, to lay and collect income taxes
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[240 U.S. 1, 13]

lay and collect income taxes
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[240 U.S. 1, 13]

Again, it has never moreover been questioned that the conceded complete and all-embracing taxing power was subject, so far as they were respectively applicable, to limitations resulting from the requirements of

art. 1, 8, cl. 1,

that

‘all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States,’
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[240 U.S. 1, 13]

art. 1, 8, cl. 1,

‘all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States,’
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[240 U.S. 1, 13]

and to the limitations of

art I., 2, cl. 3,

that

‘direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states,’
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[240 U.S. 1, 13]

art I., 2, cl. 3,

direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states,’
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[240 U.S. 1, 13]

and of

art 1, 9, cl. 4,

that

‘no capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken’
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[240 U.S. 1, 13]

art 1, 9, cl. 4,

‘no capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken’
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[240 U.S. 1, 13]

In fact, the two great subdivisions embracing the complete and perfect delegation of the power to tax and the two correlated limitations as to such power were thus aptly stated by Mr. Chief Justice Fuller in

Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan & T. Co.

157 U. S. supra, at page 557:

‘In the matter of taxation, the Constitution recognizes the two great classes of direct and indirect taxes, and lays down two rules by which their imposition must be governed, namely: The rule of apportionment as to direct taxes, and the rule of uniformity as to duties, imposts, and excises’
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[240 U.S. 1, 13]

… the

TWO GREAT SUBDIVISIONS

EMBRACING the

COMPLETE

and

PERFECT

DELEGATION of the POWER to TAX

and the

TWO CORRELATED LIMITATIONS

as to such POWER …

IN the MATTER of TAXATION,

the

CONSTITUTION

recognizes the

TWO GREAT CLASSES

of

DIRECT

and

INDIRECT TAXES,

and lays down

TWO RULES

by which their IMPOSITION

MUST be GOVERNED, namely:

The

RULE of APPORTIONMENT

as to

DIRECT TAXES,

and the

RULE of UNIFORMITY

as to

DUTIES,

IMPOSTS,

and

EXCISES’
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 13]

It is to be observed, however, as long ago pointed out in

Veazie Bank v. Fenno,

8 Wall. 533, 541,

19 L. ed. 482, 485,

that the requirements of apportionment as to one of the great classes and of uniformity as to the other class were not so much a limitation upon the complete and all-embracing authority to tax, but in their essence were simply regulations concerning the mode in which the plenary power was to be exerted

In the whole history of the government down to the time of the adoption of the 16th Amendment, leaving aside some conjectures expressed of the possibility of a tax lying intermediate between the two great classes and embraced

[240 U.S. 1, 14]

by neither, no question has been anywhere made as to the correctness of these propositions
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[240 U.S. 1, 13]

… the REQUIREMENTS of

APPORTIONMENT as to one of the great classes

and of

UNIFORMITY as to the other class

were not so much a LIMITATION upon the

COMPLETE

and

ALL-EMBRACING

AUTHORITY to TAX,

but in their essence were simply

REGULATIONS

concerning the MODE

in which the

PLENARY POWER was to be exerted

In the WHOLE HISTORY of the GOVERNMENT

down to the time of the adoption of the

16th AMENDMENT,

...

[240 U.S. 1, 14]

… NO QUESTION

HAS BEEN ANYWHERE MADE

AS TO THE

CORRECTNESS OF THESE PROPOSITIONS
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pg 16-17

240 U.S. 1, 16-17

(1916)

“The conclusion reached in the Pollock case …recognized the fact that taxation on income was, in its nature, an excise, entitled to be enforced as such”

Brushaber at page 18

wherein it was the

unanimous decision of the

U.S. Supreme Court

that the

Sixteenth Amendment

did not give Congress any new power to tax any new subjects

It also showed that the

income tax

was, in fact, an

excise

on

corporate privileges

and

privileged occupations

income tax is an EXCISE tax

It is on something you DO!

An activity or privilege tax

tax not on income, but on an activity

income tax does not neatly fall into any of the four constitutional taxes:

direct property tax, imposts, duties, or excises

But to be constitutional the income tax must fall within one of the four classes, so the closest was an excise
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[240 U.S. 1, 17]

This is the text of the Amendment:

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration’
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[240 U.S. 1, 17]

It is clear on the face of this text that it does not purport to confer power to levy income taxes in a generic sense,-an authority already possessed and never questioned,

[240 U.S. 1, 18]

-or to limit and distinguish between one kind of income taxes and another, but that the whole purpose of the Amendment was to relieve all income taxes when imposed from apportionment from a consideration of the source whence the income was derived
_________________________________________________
[240 U.S. 1, 18]

From this in substance it indisputably arises, first, that all the contentions which we have previously noticed concerning the assumed limitations to be implied from the language of the Amendment as to the nature and character of the income taxes which it authorizes find no support in the text and are in irreconcilable conflict with the very purpose which the Amendment was adopted to accomplish

Second, that the contention that the Amendment treats a tax on income as a direct tax although it is relieved from apportionment and is necessarily therefore not subject to the rule of uniformity as such rule only applies to taxes which are not direct, thus destroying the two great classifications which have been recognized and enforced from the beginning, is also wholly without foundation since the command of the Amendment that all income taxes shall not be subject to apportionment by a consideration of the sources from which the taxed income may be derived

[240 U.S. 1, 19]

forbids the application to such taxes of the rule applied in the Pollock Case by which alone such taxes were removed from the great class of excises, duties, and imposts subject to the rule of uniformity, and were placed under the other or direct class
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[240 U.S. 1, 18]

… the contention that the

AMENDMENT

treats a TAX on INCOME

as a

DIRECT TAX

although it is

RELIEVED from APPORTIONMENT

and is necessarily therefore

NOT SUBJECT

to the

RULE of UNIFORMITY

as such RULE

only applies to

TAXES which are NOT DIRECT,

thus destroying the

two great classifications

which have been

recognized

and

enforced

from the beginning,

IS also WHOLLY WITHOUT FOUNDATION
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http://laws.findlaw.com/us/240/1.html
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http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=240&invol=1
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Case
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https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/240/1/case.html
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Syllabus
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https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/240/1/
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U.S. Supreme Court

Flint v. Stone Tracy

FLINT v. STONE TRACY CO.

Flint vs Stone Tracy Co.

220 U.S. 107 (1911)

Nos. 407, 409, 410, 411, 412, 415, 420, 425, 431, 432, 442, 443, 446, 456 and 457

Argued March 17 and 18, 1910

Ordered for reargument before full bench May 31, 1910

Reargued January 17, 18 and 19, 1911

Decided March 13, 1911

“Excises are taxes laid upon the manufacture, sale or consumption of commodities within the country, upon licenses to pursue certain

(licensed)

occupations and upon corporate privileges; the requirement to pay such taxes involves the exercise of privilege”

“…Conceding the power of Congress to tax the business activities of private corporations … the tax must be measured by some standard…

It is therefore well settled by the decisions of this court that when the sovereign authority has exercised the right to tax a legitimate subject of taxation as an exercise of a franchise or privilege, it is no objection that the measure of taxation is found in the income…”

wherein an

excise tax

was defined as a

“tax being laid upon the manufacture,

sale

and

consumption

of commodities within the country,

upon licenses to pursue certain occupations

and upon corporate privileges”
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http://laws.findlaw.com/us/220/107.html
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http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=220&invol=107
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Case
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https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/220/107/case.html
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Syllabus
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https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/220/107/
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Simms v. Arehns

167 Ark. 557

271 S.W. 720

271 S.W. 720] 31 32

(271 S.W.) 733

271 SW 720 594, 595

wherein the court ruled that the
income tax

was neither a

property tax

nor a tax upon occupations of common right,

but was an

excise tax
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Redfield v. Fisher

135 Or. 180

292 P. 813

292 P. 813, 819 (Ore.)

294 P. 461

73 A.L.R. 721

(1931)

wherein the court ruled that the

individual,

unlike the

corporation,

cannot be taxed

for the mere privilege of existing

but that the

individual’s right to live and own property were

natural rights

upon which an

excise

could not be imposed
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Black’s Law Dictionary. 6th Edition

Excise tax

A tax imposed on the performance of an act, the engaging in an occupation, or the enjoyment of a privilege
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studies done by the

Congressional Research Service

that confirmed that the

income tax

is an

excise
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Congressional Record – House March 27, 1943. pg 2580

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD STATES THAT THE INCOME TAX IS NOT ON INCOME, but is an excise tax, applied only to certain taxable activities and privileges!

Congressional Record – House March 27, 1943. pg 2580

“So the amendment

(16th)

made it possible to bring investment income within the scope of the general income-tax law, but did not change the character of the tax

It is still fundamentally an excise or duty with respect to the privilege of carrying on any activity or owning any property which produces income

The income tax is, therefore, not a tax on income as such

It is an excise tax with respect to certain activities and privileges which is measured by reference to the income they produce

The income is not the subject of the tax:

it is the basis for determining the amount of tax”
Congressional Record 1943Congressional Record 1943imageCongressional Record 1943
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report by The Congressional Research Service

Report No. 84-168A, 784 / 275

Report No. 84-168 A 784/275

titled

“Some Constitutional Questions Regarding the Federal Income Tax Laws”

dated May 25, 1979

updated Sept. 26, 1984

Updated September 26, 1984

HJ 4625 U.S. A.

American Law Division

by Howard Zaritsky ; updated by John R. Luckey

Published 1984 by Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress in [Washington, D.C.]

“The Supreme Court, in a decision written by Chief Justice White, first noted that the Sixteenth Amendment did not authorize any new type of tax, nor did it repeal or revoke the tax clauses of Article I of the Constitution, quoted above

Direct taxes were, notwithstanding the advent of the Sixteenth Amendment, still subject to the rule of apportionment and indirect taxes were still the subject of the rule of uniformity

Rather, the Court found that the Sixteenth Amendment sought to restrain the Court
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http://www.lib.miamioh.edu/multifacet/record/mu3ugb3100641
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United States Constitution

First Amendment

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press;

or

THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE

peaceably to assemble,

and

TO PETITION THE GOVERNMENT

FOR A REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES
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http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html
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http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights.html
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